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The Difference Between AWD vs 4WD
The Difference Between AWD vs 4WD
Published: 2018/04/17
Channel: Wonder World
Should You Buy an All Wheel Drive Car?
Should You Buy an All Wheel Drive Car?
Published: 2016/03/29
Channel: Scotty Kilmer
The Differences Between AWD and 4WD
The Differences Between AWD and 4WD
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: Car Throttle
AWD Cars - All Wheel Drive - Explained
AWD Cars - All Wheel Drive - Explained
Published: 2012/05/09
Channel: Engineering Explained
Do you really need all-wheel drive? | Consumer Reports
Do you really need all-wheel drive? | Consumer Reports
Published: 2015/09/29
Channel: Consumer Reports
4WD vs  AWD
4WD vs AWD
Published: 2016/03/12
Channel: Trevor Benneworth
Real Symmetrical All Wheel Drive   AWD vs FWD vs RWD
Real Symmetrical All Wheel Drive AWD vs FWD vs RWD
Published: 2016/11/15
Channel: Vũ Huỳnh
AWD versus 4WD SUV explained: Which is best?
AWD versus 4WD SUV explained: Which is best?
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: AutoExpertTV
4x4 vs AWD - which is better?
4x4 vs AWD - which is better?
Published: 2017/12/24
Channel: Mike C
24 SICK AWD Launches!
24 SICK AWD Launches!
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: CarHub
CNET On Cars - AWD systems explained
CNET On Cars - AWD systems explained
Published: 2013/06/04
Channel: CNET
Top 10 Cheapest All-Wheel Drive Cars: The Short List | Most Affordable AWD Sedans and Wagons
Top 10 Cheapest All-Wheel Drive Cars: The Short List | Most Affordable AWD Sedans and Wagons
Published: 2017/11/09
Channel: AutoGuide.com
AWD Test; nissan vs honda vs ford vs toyota vs subaru
AWD Test; nissan vs honda vs ford vs toyota vs subaru
Published: 2015/03/14
Channel: urerodion
The 800hp AWD Cutlass!? - vs - 800hp Jeep SRT-8
The 800hp AWD Cutlass!? - vs - 800hp Jeep SRT-8
Published: 2015/07/06
Channel: 1320video
Top 10 Snow-Worthy AWD Cars Ranked
Top 10 Snow-Worthy AWD Cars Ranked
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: TFLnow
Top 10 Best All Wheel Drive Sports Cars
Top 10 Best All Wheel Drive Sports Cars
Published: 2016/06/17
Channel: Car News Central
The Pros & Cons of AWD Cars
The Pros & Cons of AWD Cars
Published: 2017/07/08
Channel: SleeperSim
7 Hottest Four-Wheel Drive Cars For Under $8000
7 Hottest Four-Wheel Drive Cars For Under $8000
Published: 2016/10/19
Channel: Car News Central
What Is The Best AWD System?
What Is The Best AWD System?
Published: 2015/11/04
Channel: Engineering Explained
Audi quattro all-wheel drive system with ultra technology
Audi quattro all-wheel drive system with ultra technology
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: MOTOR1 US
AWD vs RWD vs FWD || Track Test || Forza Science
AWD vs RWD vs FWD || Track Test || Forza Science
Published: 2015/10/03
Channel: Gingium
This ALL WHEEL DRIVE Motorcycle Will Amaze You
This ALL WHEEL DRIVE Motorcycle Will Amaze You
Published: 2018/06/23
Channel: Freeze Lists
AWD vs. 4x4: How do they perform Off-Road?
AWD vs. 4x4: How do they perform Off-Road?
Published: 2016/04/15
Channel: The Fast Lane Truck
All ALL WHEEL DRIVES are NOT created equal. (Subaru Vs Other
All ALL WHEEL DRIVES are NOT created equal. (Subaru Vs Other
Published: 2007/12/11
Channel: subaruofdallas
Real Symmetrical All Wheel Drive   AWD vs FWD vs RWD
Real Symmetrical All Wheel Drive AWD vs FWD vs RWD
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: Imed Samti
World
World's Fastest GTR & All Wheel Drive by Ekanoo Racing
Published: 2016/05/26
Channel: EKanooRacingTV
Front-wheel-drive v rear-wheel-drive v all-wheel-drive | A CarAdvice Feature
Front-wheel-drive v rear-wheel-drive v all-wheel-drive | A CarAdvice Feature
Published: 2016/06/01
Channel: CarAdvice.com
They Built an ALL WHEEL DRIVE 1300hp Civic
They Built an ALL WHEEL DRIVE 1300hp Civic
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: 1320video
EPIC FOUR WHEEL DRIVE BURN OUT!
EPIC FOUR WHEEL DRIVE BURN OUT!
Published: 2017/06/10
Channel: Braydon Price
FWD vs RWD vs AWD: Know How to Handle Your Junk! - The Racing Line Ep. 9
FWD vs RWD vs AWD: Know How to Handle Your Junk! - The Racing Line Ep. 9
Published: 2016/08/26
Channel: Motor Trend Channel
Infiniti Intelligent All-Wheel Drive
Infiniti Intelligent All-Wheel Drive
Published: 2010/07/07
Channel: INFINITI USA
How Every Single Modern Subaru AWD System Works
How Every Single Modern Subaru AWD System Works
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Engineering Explained
आखिर 4X4/ 4WD और AWD में फर्क क्या ?
आखिर 4X4/ 4WD और AWD में फर्क क्या ?
Published: 2017/05/31
Channel: Gagan Choudhary
How 4WD Works - Four Wheel Drive
How 4WD Works - Four Wheel Drive
Published: 2012/04/25
Channel: Engineering Explained
Jaguar | Intelligent All Wheel Drive (AWD)
Jaguar | Intelligent All Wheel Drive (AWD)
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: Jaguar
Mercedes 4Matic All Wheel Drive System Explanation
Mercedes 4Matic All Wheel Drive System Explanation
Published: 2009/12/31
Channel: CarDataVideo
Four Wheel Drive - Hammered Again (Official Video)
Four Wheel Drive - Hammered Again (Official Video)
Published: 2013/05/05
Channel: fourwheeldriverock
Carjam: How Subaru Symmetrical All Wheel Drive Works (AWD)
Carjam: How Subaru Symmetrical All Wheel Drive Works (AWD)
Published: 2011/03/21
Channel: CARJAM TV
BMW xDrive All Wheel Drive System Explained
BMW xDrive All Wheel Drive System Explained
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: DPCcars
HONDA SH-AWD (Super Handling All-Wheel Drive) INTRODUCTION
HONDA SH-AWD (Super Handling All-Wheel Drive) INTRODUCTION
Published: 2008/05/08
Channel: European Motor News
Crossover AWD / 4WD Systems
Crossover AWD / 4WD Systems
Published: 2015/04/14
Channel: WeberAuto
Ford Kuga - Intelligent all-wheel Drive System
Ford Kuga - Intelligent all-wheel Drive System
Published: 2012/03/20
Channel: Ford Europe
2018 Dodge Challenger GT | All Wheel Drive | Edmonton Alberta | 18CL6808 | Crosstown Auto Centre
2018 Dodge Challenger GT | All Wheel Drive | Edmonton Alberta | 18CL6808 | Crosstown Auto Centre
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: CrosstownChryslerJeepDodge
Rear-Wheel Drive vs Front-Wheel Drive vs All-Wheel Drive - HANDLING DYNAMICS
Rear-Wheel Drive vs Front-Wheel Drive vs All-Wheel Drive - HANDLING DYNAMICS
Published: 2013/03/11
Channel: alernest
The First Ever All-wheel Drive 911 as Reimagined by Singer Vehicle Design | GQ Cars | British GQ
The First Ever All-wheel Drive 911 as Reimagined by Singer Vehicle Design | GQ Cars | British GQ
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: British GQ
New 2018 BMW M5 xDrive All Wheel Drive System (AWD)
New 2018 BMW M5 xDrive All Wheel Drive System (AWD)
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: DPCcars
Talking Cars with Consumer Reports #79: All-Wheel-Drive: What Is It Good For? | Consumer Reports
Talking Cars with Consumer Reports #79: All-Wheel-Drive: What Is It Good For? | Consumer Reports
Published: 2015/09/29
Channel: Consumer Reports
How Haldex (AWD) All Wheel Drive Works
How Haldex (AWD) All Wheel Drive Works
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: Deutsche Auto Parts
Converting a Two-Wheel-Drive RAV4 to a Four-Wheel-Drive RAD4! - Dirt Every Day Ep. 69
Converting a Two-Wheel-Drive RAV4 to a Four-Wheel-Drive RAD4! - Dirt Every Day Ep. 69
Published: 2017/10/31
Channel: Motor Trend Channel
10 Best All-Wheel-Drive Cars Under $25,000 For 2017-2018
10 Best All-Wheel-Drive Cars Under $25,000 For 2017-2018
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Top Cars
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The Jeep Wrangler is a 4×4 four-wheel drive vehicle equipped with a low-range gearbox, which provides the driver with a selection between low range or high range gearing
Hayes WHDX 70-170 6×6 tractor
The 8×8 tractor unit of the HETS heavy equipment transport system

An all-wheel drive vehicle (AWD vehicle) is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand.

The most common forms of all-wheel drive are:

4×4 (also, four-wheel drive and 4WD)
Reflecting two axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered.
6×6 (also, six-wheel drive and 6WD)
Reflecting three axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered.
8×8 (also, eight-wheel drive and 8WD)
Reflecting four axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered.

Vehicles may be either part-time all-wheel drive or full-time:

On-demand (also, part-time)
One axle is permanently connected to the drive, the other is being connected as needed
Full-time (also, permanent)
All axles are permanently connected, with or without a differential.
Independent 
The wheels are driven, but not dependent on a transaxle. Tesla's vehicles (Model S and Model X) are so far the only ones to use such a system.

Usage of the terminology[edit]

Today, the designation AWD is becoming narrowed, particularly in North America, to apply to vehicles with drive train systems that have permanent drive and usually include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. However, the designations AWD[1] and all-wheel drive[2] long predated the trend, with Associated Equipment Company (AEC) building AWD trucks in conjunction with FWD (UK) in 1929, and General Motors manufacturing a line as "all-wheel drive" as early as the late 1930s. This distinction in terminology is not generally used outside North America.

Characteristics[edit]

When tire grip is good during road driving, a differential is used between the axles to avoid driveline windup. This is not required off-road, as the limited grip allows the tires to slip. All-wheel drive vehicles designed for extensive off-road use may not have such a differential, and so they suffer from wind-up when used on-road.[3] Selectable 4WD also avoids this problem and requires only a simple dog clutch in the transfer case, rather than a differential. For this reason, most early off-road vehicles used that system; e.g., Jeep, Land Rover.

As vehicles became more sophisticated and tires gave better winter performance in the 1960s there was an interest in giving the benefits of all-wheel drive to conventional cars; not for off-road use but for winter use in snow or on wet roads. Exotic vehicles such as the high-powered Jensen FF followed by the AMC Eagle, Subaru Leone and Audi Quattro series were the first to offer all-wheel drive in a high-speed road-based car. These, particularly the Quattro, would extensively develop this drivetrain with the use of viscous couplings and differentials to provide a safe and drivable car. The first off-road / on-road hybrids such as the Range Rover also chose the permanent all wheel drive system rather than manual selection.

Selectable 4WD has both axles rigidly coupled together, which has some advantages in very poor off-road conditions. To gain the same advantage in a permanent AWD system with a differential, the differential can be locked manually with a differential lock. As this control is frequently misunderstood and mis-used, which can then cause damage due to wind-up, they have tended to be replaced by automatic locking through the viscous couplers.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Allisons.org Automotive History [1]"1929: AEC started to build AWD trucks in conjunction with FWD (UK)"
  2. ^ MEYER, DONALD E. THE FIRST CENTURY OF GMC TRUCK HISTORY [2] "By December [1939], GMC had orders for more than 4,400 all-wheel-drive military trucks."
  3. ^ Ware, Pat (1994). In National Service. Warehouse Publications. p. 118. ISBN 0-9525563-0-8. 

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