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Landing Los Angeles | B777 Cockpit View 4K
Landing Los Angeles | B777 Cockpit View 4K
Published: 2017/10/29
Channel: High Pressure Aviation Films
MD-11 Cockpit View - Landing in Miami,  Martinair Cargo
MD-11 Cockpit View - Landing in Miami, Martinair Cargo
Published: 2017/03/09
Channel: The Pilot Channel
Great Cockpit Approach into San Francisco!
Great Cockpit Approach into San Francisco!
Published: 2016/09/11
Channel: JustPlanes
Jet Launch From USS Theodore Roosevelt • Cockpit View
Jet Launch From USS Theodore Roosevelt • Cockpit View
Published: 2018/02/17
Channel: Gung Ho Vids
Cockpit View Landing Compilation, Pilot
Cockpit View Landing Compilation, Pilot's eye.
Published: 2018/01/29
Channel: Awesome Videos
Boeing 747-400 Miami Take-off in Heavy Rain - Cockpit View
Boeing 747-400 Miami Take-off in Heavy Rain - Cockpit View
Published: 2016/11/13
Channel: The Pilot Channel
Amazing Cockpit Take-Off - Boeing 737
Amazing Cockpit Take-Off - Boeing 737
Published: 2013/02/18
Channel: PilotsTubeHD
Cockpit View - KENDARI (WITH ATC TEXT)
Cockpit View - KENDARI (WITH ATC TEXT)
Published: 2018/07/19
Channel: Edward F. Limbong
Cockpit - SNL
Cockpit - SNL
Published: 2016/10/23
Channel: Saturday Night Live
Crafty Bird TRIBAL @ Rosario Cockpit (Tombol) 27may2018
Crafty Bird TRIBAL @ Rosario Cockpit (Tombol) 27may2018
Published: 2018/05/27
Channel: crafty bird
Citilink Flight - A day with Captain Vindra ( Vincent Raditya ) Cockpit Video
Citilink Flight - A day with Captain Vindra ( Vincent Raditya ) Cockpit Video
Published: 2014/03/18
Channel: Vincent Raditya
Smoke In The Cabin & Cockpit Emergency Landing Challenge
Smoke In The Cabin & Cockpit Emergency Landing Challenge
Published: 2018/07/18
Channel: Swiss001
COCKPIT EXPERIENCE !! NEW YORK JFK. Boeing 767-300. Spectacular Landing. Flight Frankfurt - New York
COCKPIT EXPERIENCE !! NEW YORK JFK. Boeing 767-300. Spectacular Landing. Flight Frankfurt - New York
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: settime2588
Boeing 747 Cockpit View - Take-Off from Miami Intl. (MIA)
Boeing 747 Cockpit View - Take-Off from Miami Intl. (MIA)
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: The Pilot Channel
Im Cockpit dabei
Im Cockpit dabei
Published: 2018/06/21
Channel: hrfernsehen
TUIfly Boeing 787 Dreamliner COCKPIT VIEW from Amsterdam to Palma
TUIfly Boeing 787 Dreamliner COCKPIT VIEW from Amsterdam to Palma
Published: 2016/09/22
Channel: NH Airtime
Boeing 777 Cockpit view: Full flight from Amsterdam [AMS] to Sao Paolo [GRU] | Pilotseye boeing 777
Boeing 777 Cockpit view: Full flight from Amsterdam [AMS] to Sao Paolo [GRU] | Pilotseye boeing 777
Published: 2018/05/27
Channel: Frankie HM Channel
Most Amazing: F-15 Eagle Takeoff, refueling and Maneuvers (Cockpit View)
Most Amazing: F-15 Eagle Takeoff, refueling and Maneuvers (Cockpit View)
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: US Military News
Flying the Antonov 12 with cockpit footage and cargo door lowered inflight
Flying the Antonov 12 with cockpit footage and cargo door lowered inflight
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Sam Chui
How strong are cockpit windshields from a Boeing 737 airplane
How strong are cockpit windshields from a Boeing 737 airplane
Published: 2018/07/16
Channel: Edwin Sarkissian
Palembang to Jakarta - by Captain Vincent Raditya ( BATIK AIR PILOT ) - Cockpit Video
Palembang to Jakarta - by Captain Vincent Raditya ( BATIK AIR PILOT ) - Cockpit Video
Published: 2018/07/18
Channel: Vincent Raditya
We take you inside the cockpit of flight PK451 - The Air Safari
We take you inside the cockpit of flight PK451 - The Air Safari
Published: 2018/07/17
Channel: Pakistan International Airlines Corporation
Boeing 747-400 Cockpit - Breakoff Landing Amsterdam Schiphol
Boeing 747-400 Cockpit - Breakoff Landing Amsterdam Schiphol
Published: 2017/05/22
Channel: The Pilot Channel
Im Cockpit eines Lufthansa Airbus A320 (360°-Video)
Im Cockpit eines Lufthansa Airbus A320 (360°-Video)
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: WELT
dalam cockpit | pilot | flight
dalam cockpit | pilot | flight
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: aura ayub
Qantas 767 Cockpit - Sydney Airport
Qantas 767 Cockpit - Sydney Airport
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: FSXHD101
Dash 8 Takeoff Grenada(cockpit)
Dash 8 Takeoff Grenada(cockpit)
Published: 2014/03/07
Channel: StLuciaAviation
Martinair MD-11 Take-Off Amsterdam Schiphol - Cockpit View
Martinair MD-11 Take-Off Amsterdam Schiphol - Cockpit View
Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: The Pilot Channel
Cockpit view - Boeing 747-400F Landing Amsterdam Schiphol
Cockpit view - Boeing 747-400F Landing Amsterdam Schiphol
Published: 2015/04/05
Channel: The Pilot Channel
Cockpit View - Jakarta to Singapore!
Cockpit View - Jakarta to Singapore!
Published: 2018/01/24
Channel: Edward F. Limbong
[HD] Jet Cockpit-view Compilation 1
[HD] Jet Cockpit-view Compilation 1
Published: 2015/03/26
Channel: DMKSPROD
Unglaublicher Vorfall im 737 COCKPIT! AeroNews
Unglaublicher Vorfall im 737 COCKPIT! AeroNews
Published: 2018/07/14
Channel: AeroNewsGermany
CONVERSA DE COCKPIT - TAM 3054 EP #318
CONVERSA DE COCKPIT - TAM 3054 EP #318
Published: 2018/07/12
Channel: Aviões e Músicas
B737-400SF DREAM TEAM Fabien & Nicolas: ULTIMATE COCKPIT MOVIE [AirClips full flight series]
B737-400SF DREAM TEAM Fabien & Nicolas: ULTIMATE COCKPIT MOVIE [AirClips full flight series]
Published: 2018/03/16
Channel: Air-Clips.com
F-16 Cockpit Video Of Super Bowl LII Flyover (2018)
F-16 Cockpit Video Of Super Bowl LII Flyover (2018)
Published: 2018/02/08
Channel: Gung Ho Vids
Cockpit View - Landing @ Supadio International Airport, Pontianak
Cockpit View - Landing @ Supadio International Airport, Pontianak
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: Edward F. Limbong
Lufthansa Cargo Boeing 777F ULTIMATE COCKPIT MOVIE Frankfurt to Narita [AirClips full flight series]
Lufthansa Cargo Boeing 777F ULTIMATE COCKPIT MOVIE Frankfurt to Narita [AirClips full flight series]
Published: 2017/10/27
Channel: Air-Clips.com
Cockpit View - MAX 8
Cockpit View - MAX 8
Published: 2018/06/30
Channel: Edward F. Limbong
Philippines : Landing in Manila (Cockpit View)
Philippines : Landing in Manila (Cockpit View)
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: Scott Ingram
Royal Air Force Airbus A400M Atlas • Flight & Cockpit Video
Royal Air Force Airbus A400M Atlas • Flight & Cockpit Video
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: Gung Ho Vids
Cockpit View - CHANGI | MEET GARUDA PILOT
Cockpit View - CHANGI | MEET GARUDA PILOT
Published: 2018/05/26
Channel: Edward F. Limbong
Seat Virtual Cockpit - Deutsch
Seat Virtual Cockpit - Deutsch
Published: 2018/04/24
Channel: Techgamepc
Airbus 340-600 Iberia. Approach & landing at New York (cockpit view)1080pHD
Airbus 340-600 Iberia. Approach & landing at New York (cockpit view)1080pHD
Published: 2016/12/25
Channel: Heisenberg
Décollez à bord du cockpit de l
Décollez à bord du cockpit de l'Airbus A350XWB
Published: 2015/05/27
Channel: Aerocontact TV
Cobalt Air Airbus A319 | Cockpit Flight Zurich-Larnaca | Cockpit View from Takeoff to Landing!
Cobalt Air Airbus A319 | Cockpit Flight Zurich-Larnaca | Cockpit View from Takeoff to Landing!
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: TheGreatFlyer
Mithe Alo-Cockpit movie song HD
Mithe Alo-Cockpit movie song HD
Published: 2018/01/18
Channel: MD Shihabuzzaman shihab
(ATC) Cockpit Takeoff and Landing Flight GIA288 WIMM-WARR (single cam)
(ATC) Cockpit Takeoff and Landing Flight GIA288 WIMM-WARR (single cam)
Published: 2015/06/10
Channel: Gilang Wardhana
Heavy Crosswind Landing in Copenhagen - Cockpit 737
Heavy Crosswind Landing in Copenhagen - Cockpit 737
Published: 2015/02/20
Channel: PilotsTubeHD
Apache performing a dangerously low level flight: Cockpit POV Footage
Apache performing a dangerously low level flight: Cockpit POV Footage
Published: 2017/03/25
Channel: Thomas Cocker
A Child Crashes an Airbus A310 over Russia | Kid in the Cockpit | Aeroflot Flight 593 | 4K
A Child Crashes an Airbus A310 over Russia | Kid in the Cockpit | Aeroflot Flight 593 | 4K
Published: 2018/04/27
Channel: TheFlightChannel
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Cockpit of an Airbus A319 during landing
Cockpit of an IndiGo A320

A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.

Cockpit of an Antonov An-124
Cockpit of an A380. Most Airbus cockpits are glass cockpits featuring fly-by-wire technology.
Swiss HB-IZX Saab 2000 during flight

The cockpit of an aircraft contains flight instruments on an instrument panel, and the controls that enable the pilot to fly the aircraft. In most airliners, a door separates the cockpit from the aircraft cabin. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, all major airlines fortified their cockpits against access by hijackers.[1][2]

Etymology[edit]

The word cockpit was originally a sailing term for the coxswain's station in a Royal Navy ship,[3] and later the location of the ship's rudder controls.[citation needed] Cockpit first appeared in the English language in the 1580s, "a pit for fighting cocks", from cock + pit. Used in nautical sense (1706) for midshipmen's compartment below decks;[4][5] transferred to airplanes (1914) and to cars (1930s).[6] From about 1935,[citation needed] cockpit came to be used informally to refer to the driver's seat of a car, especially a high performance one,[7] and this is official terminology in Formula One.[8]

In an airliner, the cockpit is usually referred to as the flight deck, the term deriving from its use by the RAF for the separate, upper platform in large flying boats where the pilot and co-pilot sat.[9][clarification needed][10][clarification needed] In the US and many other countries, however, the term cockpit is also used for airliners.[2]

The seat of a powerboat racing craft is also referred to as the cockpit.[11]

Ergonomics[edit]

The first airplane with an enclosed cabin appeared in 1912 on the Avro Type F; however, during the early 1920s there were many passenger aircraft in which the crew remained open to the air while the passengers sat in a cabin. Military biplanes and the first single-engined fighters and attack aircraft also had open cockpits, some as late as the Second World War when enclosed cockpits became the norm.

The largest impediment to having closed cabins was the material the windows were to be made of. Prior to Perspex becoming available in 1933, windows were either safety glass, which was heavy, or cellulose nitrate (i.e.: guncotton), which yellowed quickly and was extremely flammable. In the mid-1920s many aircraft manufacturers began using enclosed cockpits for the first time. Early airplanes with closed cockpits include the 1924 Fokker F.VII, the 1926 German Junkers W 34 transport, the 1926 Ford Trimotor, the 1927 Lockheed Vega, the Spirit of St. Louis and the passenger aircraft manufactured by the Douglas and Boeing companies during the mid-1930s. Open-cockpit airplanes were almost extinct by the mid-1950s, with the exception of training planes, crop-dusters and homebuilt aircraft designs.

Cockpit windows may be equipped with a sun shield. Most cockpits have windows that can be opened when the aircraft is on the ground. Nearly all glass windows in large aircraft have an anti-reflective coating, and an internal heating element to melt ice. Smaller aircraft may be equipped with a transparent aircraft canopy.

In most cockpits the pilot's control column or joystick is located centrally (centre stick), although in some military fast jets the side-stick is located on the right hand side. In some commercial airliners (i.e.: Airbus—which features the glass cockpit concept) both pilots use a side-stick located on the outboard side, so Captain's side-stick on the left and First-officer's seat on the right.

Except for some helicopters, the right seat in the cockpit of an aircraft is the seat used by the co-pilot. The captain or pilot in command sits in the left seat, so that they can operate the throttles and other pedestal instruments with his right hand. The tradition has been maintained to this day, with the co-pilot on the right hand side.[12]

The layout of the cockpit, especially in the military fast jet, has undergone standardisation, both within and between aircraft, manufacturers and even nations. An important development was the "Basic Six" pattern, later the "Basic T", developed from 1937 onwards by the Royal Air Force, designed to optimise pilot instrument scanning.

Ergonomics and Human Factors concerns are important in the design of modern cockpits. The layout and function of cockpit displays controls are designed to increase pilot situation awareness without causing information overload. In the past, many cockpits, especially in fighter aircraft, limited the size of the pilots that could fit into them. Now, cockpits are being designed to accommodate from the 1st percentile female physical size and the 99th percentile male size.

In the design of the cockpit in a military fast jet, the traditional "knobs and dials" associated with the cockpit are mainly absent. Instrument panels are now almost wholly replaced by electronic displays, which are themselves often re-configurable to save space. While some hard-wired dedicated switches must still be used for reasons of integrity and safety, many traditional controls are replaced by multi-function re-configurable controls or so-called "soft keys". Controls are incorporated onto the stick and throttle to enable the pilot to maintain a head-up and eyes-out position – the Hands On Throttle And Stick or HOTAS concept,. These controls may be then further augmented by control media such as head pointing with a Helmet Mounted Sighting System or Direct voice input (DVI). Advances in auditory displays allow for Direct Voice Output of aircraft status information and for the spatial localisation of warning sounds for improved monitoring of aircraft systems.

The layout of control panels in modern airliners has become largely unified across the industry. The majority of the systems-related controls (such as electrical, fuel, hydraulics and pressurization) for example, are usually located in the ceiling on an overhead panel. Radios are generally placed on a panel between the pilot's seats known as the pedestal. Automatic flight controls such as the autopilot are usually placed just below the windscreen and above the main instrument panel on the glareshield. A central concept in the design of the cockpit is the Design Eye Position or "DEP", from which point all displays should be visible.

Most modern cockpits will also include some kind of integrated warning system.

In a 2013 comparative study of a number of novel methods for cockpit-user interaction, touchscreen produced the largest number of "best scores".[13]

Flight instruments[edit]

USAF and IAF airmen work inside the cockpit of an IAF Ilyushin Il-76
Vickers VC10 cockpit of the 1960s
A later analogue cockpit (1970s) of a Hawker Siddeley Trident airliner

In the modern electronic cockpit, the electronic flight instruments usually regarded as essential are MCP, PFD, ND, EICAS, FMS/CDU and back-up instruments.

MCP[edit]

A mode control panel, usually a long narrow panel located centrally in front of the pilot, may be used to control heading, speed, altitude, vertical speed, vertical navigation and lateral navigation. It may also be used to engage or disengage both the autopilot and the autothrottle. The panel as an area is usually referred to as the "glareshield panel". MCP is a Boeing designation (that has been informally adopted as a generic name for the unit/panel) for a unit that allows for the selection and parameter setting of the different autoflight functions, the same unit on an Airbus aircraft is referred to as the FCU (Flight Control unit).

PFD[edit]

The primary flight display is usually located in a prominent position, either centrally or on either side of the cockpit. It will in most cases include a digitized presentation of the attitude indicator, air speed and altitude indicators (usually as a tape display) and the vertical speed indicator. It will in many cases include some form of heading indicator and ILS/VOR deviation indicators. In many cases an indicator of the engaged and armed autoflight system modes will be present along with some form of indication of the selected values for altitude, speed, vertical speed and heading. It may be pilot selectable to swap with the ND.

ND[edit]

A navigation display, which may be adjacent to the PFD, shows the route and information on the next waypoint, wind speed and wind direction. It may be pilot selectable to swap with the PFD.

EICAS/ECAM[edit]

The Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (used for Boeing) or Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (for Airbus) will allow the pilot to monitor the following information: values for N1, N2 and N3, fuel temperature, fuel flow, the electrical system, cockpit or cabin temperature and pressure, control surfaces and so on. The pilot may select display of information by means of button press.

FMS[edit]

The flight management system/control unit may be used by the pilot to enter and check for the following information: flight plan, speed control, navigation control, and so on.

Back-up instruments[edit]

In a less prominent part of the cockpit, in case of failure of the other instruments, there will be a battery-powered integrated standby instrument system along with a magnetic compass, showing essential flight information such as speed, altitude, attitude and heading.

Aerospace industry technologies[edit]

In the U.S. the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have researched the ergonomic aspects of cockpit design and have conducted investigations of airline industry accidents. Cockpit design disciplines include Cognitive science, Neuroscience, Human–computer interaction, Human Factors Engineering, Anthropometry and Ergonomics.

Aircraft designs have adopted the fully digital "glass cockpit". In such designs, instruments and gauges, including navigational map displays, use a user interface markup language known as ARINC 661. This standard defines the interface between an independent cockpit display system, generally produced by a single manufacturer, and the avionics equipment and user applications it is required to support, by means of displays and controls, often made by different manufacturers. The separation between the overall display system, and the applications driving it, allows for specialization and independence.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Press Release – FAA Sets New Standards for Cockpit Doors". Faa.gov. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  2. ^ a b Godfey, Kara (25 May 2017). "FLIGHTS REVEALED: Pilot reveals what REALLY goes on in a cockpit...and it may surprise you". The Express. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  3. ^ Roderick Bailey Forgotten Voices of D-Day: A New History of the Normandy Landings, p. 189, at Google Books
  4. ^ S. A. Cavell Midshipmen and Quarterdeck Boys in the British Navy, 1771–1831, p. 12, at Google Books
  5. ^ Peter Stanley For Fear of Pain: British Surgery, 1790–1850, p. 100, at Google Books
  6. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  7. ^ David Levinson and Karen Christensen Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present, p. 145, at Google Books
  8. ^ Richards, Giles (22 July 2017). "FIA defends decision to enforce F1 halo cockpit protection device for 2018". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  9. ^ "Sunderland flying boat replica cockpit unveiled". bbc.co.uk. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  10. ^ By David D. Allyn Yardarm and Cockpit Hardcover, p. 225, at Google Books
  11. ^ Bob Wartinger A Driver's Guide to Safe Boat Racing (2008), p. 17, at Google Books
  12. ^ Charles F. Spence (1994). The Right Seat Handbook: A White-Knuckle Flier's Guide to Light Planes. McGraw Hill Professional. ASIN 0070601488. ISBN 978-0-07-060148-2. 
  13. ^ Stanton, N. A., Harvey, C., Plant, K. L. and Bolton, L., 2013, "To twist, roll, stroke or poke. A study of input devices for menu navigation in the cockpit", Ergonomic Abstracts, Vol. 56 (4), pp. 590–611

External links[edit]

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