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What is CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE? What does CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE mean? CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE meaning
What is CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE? What does CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE mean? CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE meaning
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: The Audiopedia
Authentication Protocol | Man In Middle Attack | Replay Attack | Nonce
Authentication Protocol | Man In Middle Attack | Replay Attack | Nonce
Published: 2015/05/04
Channel: saurabhschool
What is a Bitcoin nonce?
What is a Bitcoin nonce?
Published: 2015/02/27
Channel: Bitcoin Uncensored
Blockchain Basics Explained - Hashes with Mining and Merkle trees
Blockchain Basics Explained - Hashes with Mining and Merkle trees
Published: 2016/02/07
Channel: Chainthat
Online Authenticated Encryption and its Nonce Reuse Misuse Resistance
Online Authenticated Encryption and its Nonce Reuse Misuse Resistance
Published: 2016/01/05
Channel: TheIACR
Blockchain A-Z: Nonce
Blockchain A-Z: Nonce
Published: 2017/08/04
Channel: Blockchain WTF
Blockchain Primer - Merkle Tree, DAG, Consensus, Nonce, ...
Blockchain Primer - Merkle Tree, DAG, Consensus, Nonce, ...
Published: 2018/02/11
Channel: Tomer Ben David
HOW TO BE A NONCE!
HOW TO BE A NONCE!
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: Johnny Carey
THE BIGGEST NONCE ON THE PLANET
THE BIGGEST NONCE ON THE PLANET
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Memeulous
(YTP) IT (GEORGIE IS A NONCE)
(YTP) IT (GEORGIE IS A NONCE)
Published: 2017/11/18
Channel: Melon Juice
NONCE BILLY DUFFY!
NONCE BILLY DUFFY!
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Hard Justice
Nonce tries to attack Shane Brannigan.
Nonce tries to attack Shane Brannigan.
Published: 2018/04/05
Channel: Todd
Introduction to Using Nonces in WordPress
Introduction to Using Nonces in WordPress
Published: 2012/01/11
Channel: Pippin Williamson
PE - PAEDOPHILE CAUGHT LIVE IN LEEDS - NONCE - SEXUAL PREDATOR - 06-07-18
PE - PAEDOPHILE CAUGHT LIVE IN LEEDS - NONCE - SEXUAL PREDATOR - 06-07-18
Published: 2018/07/06
Channel: Predator Hunter Videos
Tasty Rosen/NONCE YTP
Tasty Rosen/NONCE YTP
Published: 2018/07/20
Channel: NoiceYtP
Hysterical Nonce caught.
Hysterical Nonce caught.
Published: 2018/03/29
Channel: Todd
Nonces (friends parody)
Nonces (friends parody)
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Luke Hopkins
Nigel the dirty nonce
Nigel the dirty nonce
Published: 2018/04/11
Channel: michael predator hunters north west
Worst nonce ever busted.
Worst nonce ever busted.
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: User Of The Unknown
I
I'd like to fight a nonce.
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: Callums Corner
Nasty Paedo Nonce gets caught in the act
Nasty Paedo Nonce gets caught in the act
Published: 2017/10/28
Channel: Karl Khan
Dog Nonce Dawson
Dog Nonce Dawson
Published: 2018/01/30
Channel: Uganda Individual
(NONCE) James Smith 69 from LUTON (Ex Royal Navy Officer)
(NONCE) James Smith 69 from LUTON (Ex Royal Navy Officer)
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: Road Runner
Nonce exposed! WTF Caught red handed! MUST WATCH!!
Nonce exposed! WTF Caught red handed! MUST WATCH!!
Published: 2017/10/20
Channel: random TV
Andreas M. Antonopoulos|| Who generates the nonce? What makes it random?
Andreas M. Antonopoulos|| Who generates the nonce? What makes it random?
Published: 2018/05/21
Channel: Crypto's Price Forecast
NONCE
NONCE
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: Nafe
Pennywise the NONCE
Pennywise the NONCE
Published: 2017/09/28
Channel: offensive memes
John is questioned " are u a nonce"?
John is questioned " are u a nonce"?
Published: 2018/06/10
Channel: John the scon sightings
Nonce Hunter Scouse exposed as a nonce.
Nonce Hunter Scouse exposed as a nonce.
Published: 2018/02/16
Channel: User Of The Unknown
SCOUSE THE NONCE FULL VIDEO ONE OF THERE OWN GETS STUNG
SCOUSE THE NONCE FULL VIDEO ONE OF THERE OWN GETS STUNG
Published: 2018/02/27
Channel: PAEDOPHILE HUNTERS
PAEDOPHILE (NONCE) CAUGHT: ISLE OF WIGHT
PAEDOPHILE (NONCE) CAUGHT: ISLE OF WIGHT
Published: 2018/04/14
Channel: G Soul
Kane Larkin-Nonce
Kane Larkin-Nonce
Published: 2016/01/30
Channel: CalPlays
Nonce Gerard Blake Gets Busted
Nonce Gerard Blake Gets Busted
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: SuperEarther
Big f***ing strokey nonce
Big f***ing strokey nonce
Published: 2016/08/03
Channel: Valinise / vxv
Nathan aka NONCE sting. Caught!
Nathan aka NONCE sting. Caught!
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Hard Justice
BIGGEST NONCE ON YOUTUBE (In Love With 14 Year Old)
BIGGEST NONCE ON YOUTUBE (In Love With 14 Year Old)
Published: 2017/11/26
Channel: gRAFF
Convicted Pedo/Nonce caught.
Convicted Pedo/Nonce caught.
Published: 2018/03/29
Channel: Todd
You
You're a nonce, mate.
Published: 2017/05/13
Channel: Max Evans
Taxi for Michael - The NONCE
Taxi for Michael - The NONCE
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Hard Justice
SAGA CONTINUES: Shanes Brannigans (NONCE HUNTING LEGEND) VENGEANCE!! WARPATH!!!
SAGA CONTINUES: Shanes Brannigans (NONCE HUNTING LEGEND) VENGEANCE!! WARPATH!!!
Published: 2018/05/06
Channel: G Soul
NONCE DISS TRACK
NONCE DISS TRACK
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: Doany
Nonce Steve Baldock stung AGAIN!
Nonce Steve Baldock stung AGAIN!
Published: 2017/12/31
Channel: User Of The Unknown
Stingy is a strokey  nonce
Stingy is a strokey nonce
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: T.S.G_ yt
IRISH CREEPY NONCE MICHAEL DEMPSEY "BEST MOMENTS" PREVIEW
IRISH CREEPY NONCE MICHAEL DEMPSEY "BEST MOMENTS" PREVIEW
Published: 2018/03/21
Channel: TheSpazzyNerd
BIGGEST NONCE EVER
BIGGEST NONCE EVER
Published: 2018/03/13
Channel: Gravezy
Nonce
Nonce
Published: 2018/05/02
Channel: Luke XAX
Nonce caught!
Nonce caught!
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Hard Justice
Trump the nonce
Trump the nonce
Published: 2018/01/25
Channel: Rick Male
NONCE//WILLNE
NONCE//WILLNE
Published: 2018/02/02
Channel: Michael Hardie
NONCE RAT CAUGHT!!
NONCE RAT CAUGHT!!
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: Hard Justice
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Typical client–server communication during a nonce-based authentication process including both a server nonce and a client nonce.

In cryptography, a nonce is an arbitrary number that can be used just once. It is similar in spirit to a nonce word, hence the name. It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in an authentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks. They can also be useful as initialization vectors and in cryptographic hash functions.

Definition[edit]

A nonce is an arbitrary number used only once in a cryptographic communication, in the spirit of a nonce word. They are often random or pseudo-random numbers. Many nonces also include a timestamp to ensure exact timeliness, though this requires clock synchronization between organizations. The addition of a client nonce ("cnonce") helps to improve the security in some ways as implemented in digest access authentication. To ensure that a nonce is used only once, it should be time-variant (including a suitably fine-grained timestamp in its value), or generated with enough random bits to ensure a probabilistically insignificant chance of repeating a previously generated value. Some authors define pseudo-randomness (or unpredictability) as a requirement for a nonce.[1]

Usage[edit]

Authentication[edit]

Authentication protocols may use nonces to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks. For instance, nonces are used in HTTP digest access authentication to calculate an MD5 digest of the password. The nonces are different each time the 401 authentication challenge response code is presented, thus making replay attacks virtually impossible. The scenario of ordering products over the Internet can provide an example of the usefulness of nonces in replay attacks. An attacker could take the encrypted information and—without needing to decrypt—could continue to send a particular order to the supplier, thereby ordering products over and over again under the same name and purchase information. The nonce is used to give 'originality' to a given message so that if the company receives any other orders from the same person with the same nonce, it will discard those as invalid orders.

A nonce may be used to ensure security for a stream cipher. Where the same key is used for more than one message and then a different nonce is used to ensure that the keystream is different for different messages encrypted with that key; often the message number is used.

Secret nonce values are used by the Lamport signature scheme as a signer-side secret which can be selectively revealed for comparison to public hashes for signature creation and verification.

Initialization vectors[edit]

Initialization vectors may be referred to as nonces, as they are typically random or pseudo-random.

Hashing[edit]

Nonces are used in proof-of-work systems to vary the input to a cryptographic hash function so as to obtain a hash for a certain input that fulfills certain arbitrary conditions. In doing so, it becomes far more difficult to create a "desirable" hash than to verify it, shifting the burden of work onto one side of a transaction or system. For example, proof of work, using hash functions, was considered as a means to combat email spam by forcing email senders to find a hash value for the email (which included a timestamp to prevent pre-computation of useful hashes for later use) that had an arbitrary number of leading zeroes, by hashing the same input with a large number of nonce values until a "desirable" hash was obtained.

Similarly, the bitcoin blockchain hashing algorithm can be tuned to an arbitrary difficulty by changing the required minimum/maximum value of the hash so that the number of bitcoins awarded for new blocks does not increase linearly with increased network computation power as new users join. This is likewise achieved by forcing bitcoin miners to add nonce values to the value being hashed to change the hash algorithm output. Because cryptographic hash algorithms cannot easily be predicted based on their inputs, this makes the act of blockchain hashing and the possibility of being awarded bitcoins something of a lottery, where the first "miner" to find a nonce that delivers a desirable hash is awarded bitcoins.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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