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Nibiru Fragment To Strike NEW YORK February 16, says Russian Astronomer
Nibiru Fragment To Strike NEW YORK February 16, says Russian Astronomer
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: Nibiru News
Syrian War Report – February 20, 2018: Turkey Threatens To Strike Syrian Army
Syrian War Report – February 20, 2018: Turkey Threatens To Strike Syrian Army
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: South Front
2018 February 27 Mangosuthu University Of Technology University students Strike
2018 February 27 Mangosuthu University Of Technology University students Strike
Published: 2018/02/27
Channel: PSMAGEBA
B-52 Strike on Taliban Narcotics Production Facility 2/2/2018
B-52 Strike on Taliban Narcotics Production Facility 2/2/2018
Published: 2018/02/06
Channel: MilitaryNotes
February Strike.Gusta Olivier-Vonk and her grand doughter explaining
February Strike.Gusta Olivier-Vonk and her grand doughter explaining
Published: 2012/02/26
Channel: spiritofsquatters
27 February 2018 Mangosuthu University Of Technology strike
27 February 2018 Mangosuthu University Of Technology strike
Published: 2018/02/28
Channel: PSMAGEBA
Meteor Hits Russia Feb 15, 2013 - Event Archive
Meteor Hits Russia Feb 15, 2013 - Event Archive
Published: 2013/02/18
Channel: Tuvix72
Shemdon strike & pass February Dancehall 2016
Shemdon strike & pass February Dancehall 2016
Published: 2016/02/23
Channel: dancehall update
Destiny 2 News | STRIKE UNIQUE WEAPONS! New Patch Details, More Exotic Buffs & Activision on Destiny
Destiny 2 News | STRIKE UNIQUE WEAPONS! New Patch Details, More Exotic Buffs & Activision on Destiny
Published: 2018/02/25
Channel: xHOUNDISHx
syria war | air strike 24 feb 2018
syria war | air strike 24 feb 2018
Published: 2018/02/25
Channel: UNKNOWN
Nibiru Fragment To Strike Earth in February, Says Russian Astronomer
Nibiru Fragment To Strike Earth in February, Says Russian Astronomer
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: Nibiru News
Why We Strike 4-Student Debt and Free Education February 13, 2018
Why We Strike 4-Student Debt and Free Education February 13, 2018
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Deb Della Piana
Massive Solar Storm Will Strike Earth February 15, 2018
Massive Solar Storm Will Strike Earth February 15, 2018
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: Gagare1952
BREAKING USA Drone Strike on Russian Military Fighters Tank in Deir Ezzor Syria February 14 2018
BREAKING USA Drone Strike on Russian Military Fighters Tank in Deir Ezzor Syria February 14 2018
Published: 2018/02/14
Channel: u2bheavenbound
LIVE FOOTAGE TAIWAN EARTHQUAKE 100 Injured After Twin Tremors Strike February 2018
LIVE FOOTAGE TAIWAN EARTHQUAKE 100 Injured After Twin Tremors Strike February 2018
Published: 2018/02/06
Channel: The Two Preachers
NIBIRU FRAGMENT TO STRIKE EARTH IN FEBRUARY, SAYS RUSSIAN ASTRONOMER
NIBIRU FRAGMENT TO STRIKE EARTH IN FEBRUARY, SAYS RUSSIAN ASTRONOMER
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: PLANET X NEWS
Shemdon magnum kings & Queens performance February 2016 (strike and pass)
Shemdon magnum kings & Queens performance February 2016 (strike and pass)
Published: 2016/02/21
Channel: dancehall update
Mark Taylor Prayer Focus February 2018 - Strike Down The Enemy In Education System -
Mark Taylor Prayer Focus February 2018 - Strike Down The Enemy In Education System -
Published: 2018/02/23
Channel: Logistilla Demers
General Strike-New Info and Material  February 5, 2018
General Strike-New Info and Material February 5, 2018
Published: 2018/02/05
Channel: Deb Della Piana
Private Buses To Go On Indefinite Strike From 16 February| Mathrubhumi News
Private Buses To Go On Indefinite Strike From 16 February| Mathrubhumi News
Published: 2018/02/09
Channel: Mathrubhumi News
Cardiff University Staff on Strike! BBC Wales Today 22 February 2018
Cardiff University Staff on Strike! BBC Wales Today 22 February 2018
Published: 2018/02/26
Channel: Steven Stanley
Big Fight Live
Big Fight Live 'Strike of Home Guards' | Part 2, Monday, 06 February 2017
Published: 2017/02/07
Channel: First India News
AQUARIUS FEBRUARY 2018~A Strike of Good Luck!
AQUARIUS FEBRUARY 2018~A Strike of Good Luck!
Published: 2018/01/22
Channel: UrielFirelyte Sacred Tarot Guidance
Expect  a full blown strike in February
Expect a full blown strike in February's budget speech
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: News24
2nd Nationwide Teachers
2nd Nationwide Teachers' SITDOWN STRIKE for SALARY INCREASE! (February 24, 2015)
Published: 2015/03/18
Channel: April Val Montes
February 2018: UCU Strike
February 2018: UCU Strike
Published: 2018/02/22
Channel: FuseTV Manchester
Wives On Strike Trailer- Showing this February On iBAKATV.COM
Wives On Strike Trailer- Showing this February On iBAKATV.COM
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: IBAKATV - NOLLYWOOD
Wives On Strike Trailer- Showing this February On iBAKATV.COM
Wives On Strike Trailer- Showing this February On iBAKATV.COM
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: IBAKATV - NOLLYWOOD
RAF Tornado strike on Daesh vehicle on Thursday 18 February 2016
RAF Tornado strike on Daesh vehicle on Thursday 18 February 2016
Published: 2016/02/23
Channel: Ministry of Defence
National General Strike February 17, 2017
National General Strike February 17, 2017
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: This!
☆ Granada on strike | Monday 14 February 1983
☆ Granada on strike | Monday 14 February 1983
Published: 2015/09/02
Channel: Transdiffusion Broadcasting System
In Production: Strike Back | Season 5 Premieres February 2, 2018
In Production: Strike Back | Season 5 Premieres February 2, 2018
Published: 2017/11/04
Channel: Cinemax
Budhadeb says, no strike in Bengal on 21 February
Budhadeb says, no strike in Bengal on 21 February
Published: 2013/02/05
Channel: ABP ANANDA
NIBIRU FRAGMENT TO STRIKE EARTH IN FEBRUARY, SAYS RUSSIAN ASTRONOMER
NIBIRU FRAGMENT TO STRIKE EARTH IN FEBRUARY, SAYS RUSSIAN ASTRONOMER
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: Sue Redeford
Press Coverage of SEIU Local 99
Press Coverage of SEIU Local 99's February 26 Strike Vote Announcement
Published: 2018/03/02
Channel: SEIU Local 99
February half term - Washington Children
February half term - Washington Children's Strike centenary
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: Beamish Museum
Why We Strike 5-The Assault on Freedom of Information February 14, 2018
Why We Strike 5-The Assault on Freedom of Information February 14, 2018
Published: 2018/02/15
Channel: Deb Della Piana
Coalition Strike on ISIL Building 1 20 Feb 15 in the vicinity of Sinjar, Iraq
Coalition Strike on ISIL Building 1 20 Feb 15 in the vicinity of Sinjar, Iraq
Published: 2015/02/26
Channel: U.S. Central Command
Viper Strike February 8th, 2018
Viper Strike February 8th, 2018
Published: 2018/02/07
Channel: ACS Today
Lenin teach in at SOAS UCU strike February 2018.
Lenin teach in at SOAS UCU strike February 2018.
Published: 2018/03/03
Channel: SOAS Justice for Workers - End Outsourcing
News @ 7AM: Law Academy Strike Moves Into Day 26 | 5th February 2017
News @ 7AM: Law Academy Strike Moves Into Day 26 | 5th February 2017
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: People TV
Titabar town committee staff strike news (8 February 2018)
Titabar town committee staff strike news (8 February 2018)
Published: 2018/02/08
Channel: Somsher Ahmed
RAF Tornado strike on Daesh rocket rails 17 February 2016
RAF Tornado strike on Daesh rocket rails 17 February 2016
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: Ministry of Defence
‪#‎UBER‬ DRIVERS STRIKE  1 st OF FEBRUARY, 2016 CANDLESTICK PARK 2:00 pm SAN FRANCISCO
‪#‎UBER‬ DRIVERS STRIKE 1 st OF FEBRUARY, 2016 CANDLESTICK PARK 2:00 pm SAN FRANCISCO
Published: 2016/01/31
Channel: Ilya Yankov
No strike on 21 February in West Bengal: CITU leader Shyamal Chakraborty
No strike on 21 February in West Bengal: CITU leader Shyamal Chakraborty
Published: 2013/02/05
Channel: ABP ANANDA
RAF Tornado strike on Daesh weapons storage 15 February 2016
RAF Tornado strike on Daesh weapons storage 15 February 2016
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: Ministry of Defence
DUT Students and Staff Strike Package
DUT Students and Staff Strike Package
Published: 2018/02/16
Channel: Journalismiziko IzikoNews
Banks To Go On Nation-Wide Strike On February 7
Banks To Go On Nation-Wide Strike On February 7
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: People TV
Viper Strike for February 5th
Viper Strike for February 5th
Published: 2018/01/30
Channel: ACS Today
I Saw Lightnings of God Strike the Earth! | Ryan LeStrange on Sid Roth
I Saw Lightnings of God Strike the Earth! | Ryan LeStrange on Sid Roth's It's Supernatural!
Published: 2018/02/11
Channel: Sid Roth's It's Supernatural!
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Arrest of Dutch Jews by the Nazis, February 1941 (Jonas Daniël Meijerplein (nl))
German soldiers at the Jonas Daniël Meijerplein during the raids

The February Strike (Dutch: Februaristaking) was a general strike in the German-occupied Netherlands during World War II, organized by the then-outlawed Communist Party of the Netherlands in defence of persecuted Dutch Jews and against the anti-Jewish measures and activities of the Nazis in general.

The direct causes were a series of arrests and pogroms held by the Germans in the Jewish neighbourhood of Amsterdam. It started on 25 February 1941 and lasted for two days; on 26 February, 300,000 people joined the strike. The strike was harshly suppressed by the Germans after three days.[1]

The 1941 February Strike is considered to be the first public protest against the Nazis in occupied Europe,[2] and the only mass protest against the deportation of Jews to be organized by non-Jews.[3]

Background[edit]

The Netherlands surrendered to Nazi Germany in May 1940, and the first anti-Jewish measures (the barring of Jews from the air-raid defence services) began in June 1940. These culminated in November 1940 in the removal of all Jews from public positions, including universities, which led directly to student protests in Leiden and elsewhere. At the same time, there was an increasing feeling of unrest amongst workers in Amsterdam, especially the workers at the shipyards in Amsterdam-Noord, who were threatened with forced labour in Germany.

Cause[edit]

As tensions rose, the Dutch pro-Nazi movement NSB and its streetfighting arm, the WA ("Weerbaarheidsafdeling" - defence section), were involved in a series of provocations in Jewish neighbourhoods in Amsterdam. This eventually led to a series of street battles between the WA and Jewish self-defence groups and their supporters, culminating in a pitched battle on 11 February 1941 on the Waterlooplein in which WA member Hendrik Koot was badly wounded. He died of his injuries on 14 February 1941.

On 12 February 1941, German soldiers, assisted by Dutch police, encircled the old Jewish neighbourhood and cordoned it off from the rest of the city by putting up barbed wire, opening bridges and putting in police checkpoints. This neighbourhood was now forbidden for non-Jews.

On 19 February, the German Grüne Polizei stormed into the Koco ice-cream salon in the Van Woustraat. In the fight that ensued, several police officers were wounded. Revenge for this and other fights came in the weekend of 22–23 February, when a large scale pogrom was undertaken by the Germans. 425 Jewish men, age 20-35 were taken hostage and imprisoned in Kamp Schoorl and eventually sent to the Buchenwald and Mauthausen concentration camps, where most of them died within the year. Out of 425, only two survived.

The strike[edit]

Leaflet announcing the strike

Following this pogrom, on 24 February, an open-air meeting was held on the Noordermarkt to organise a strike to protest against the pogrom as well as the forced labour in Germany. The Communist Party of the Netherlands, made illegal by the Germans, printed and spread a call to strike throughout the city the next morning. The first to strike were the city's tram drivers, followed by other city services as well as companies like De Bijenkorf and schools. Eventually 300,000 people joined in the strike, bringing much of the city to a halt and catching the Germans by surprise.[4] Though the Germans immediately took measures to suppress the strike, which had grown spontaneously as other workers followed the example of the tram drivers, it still spread to other areas, including Zaanstad, Kennemerland in the west, Bussum, Hilversum and Utrecht in the east and the south.[5] The strike did not last long. By 27 February, much of it had been suppressed by the German police. Although ultimately unsuccessful, it was significant in that it was the first and only direct action against the Nazis' treatment of Jews in Europe.

The next strike would be student strikes in November 1941, and after that the large April–May strikes in 1943 that ushered in a period of armed covert resistance on a national scale.

In the rest of Nazi-occupied Europe the Greeks in April 1942,[6] the Danes starting in the summer of 1943, the Luxemburgers in August 1942, the Belgians in May 1941, the Norwegians in September 1941 and the North French miners in May–June 1941 also went on strike, but not as early as the Dutch strike of February 1941 and it has to be noted that the February strike in Amsterdam was the only strike against the way Jews were treated by the Germans in Nazi-occupied Europe.

Historiography[edit]

The book De februaristaking ("The February strike") by historian Ben Sijes (nl) was published in 1954.

Remembrance[edit]

De Dokwerker on the Jonas Daniël Meijerplein in Amsterdam

The strike is remembered each year on 25 February, with a march past the De Dokwerker (nl), the memorial made for the strike in 1951 and first revealed in December 1952. This statue was made by Dutch sculptor Mari Andriessen. All political parties, as well as the city public transport authorities and organisations of Holocaust survivors, participate in the remembrance. Although three communist organizers were shot to death after the strike and 12 communist organizers were sent to jails in Germany, during the Cold War the communists were forced to remember the strike separately from other political groups. For many years after the war, Dutch officials publicly denied contributions by the communists to the strike.[citation needed]

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Amsterdam, USHMM
  2. ^ 1941: The Dutch Strike Against Nazi Abuses of Jews, Haaretz
  3. ^ Amsterdam marks anniversary of 1941 mass strike in support of Jews, World Jewish Congress
  4. ^ Congress, World Jewish. "Amsterdam marks anniversary of 1941 mass strike in support of Jews". 
  5. ^ de Jong, Dr. Loe. Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog. RIOD, part 4, first half, Amsterdam, 1971. 
  6. ^ Mazower (2001), p.112

External links[edit]

Media related to February strike at Wikimedia Commons

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