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Video Frame Rates: What You Need to Know
Video Frame Rates: What You Need to Know
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: Brandon Li
Does Frame Rate Matter?
Does Frame Rate Matter?
Published: 2016/02/08
Channel: Austin Evans
Frame Rates EXPLAINED: How To Film & Edit Mixed Frame Rate Video In Premiere Pro
Frame Rates EXPLAINED: How To Film & Edit Mixed Frame Rate Video In Premiere Pro
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: Matt WhoisMatt Johnson
Do You Know What The Best Frame Rate Is To Use When Shooting Video: 24 /30 /60
Do You Know What The Best Frame Rate Is To Use When Shooting Video: 24 /30 /60
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Jared Polin
Frame Rate: The Last Jedi
Frame Rate: The Last Jedi
Published: 2017/12/16
Channel: Small Beans
When You Should NOT Shoot in 24 FPS
When You Should NOT Shoot in 24 FPS
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Aputure
Frame Rate Breakdown
Frame Rate Breakdown
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: YCImaging
Difference in Frame rates 24fps vs 30fps vs 60fps  | AVI
Difference in Frame rates 24fps vs 30fps vs 60fps | AVI
Published: 2017/10/18
Channel: InfoTV CA
The History of Frame Rate for Film
The History of Frame Rate for Film
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: Filmmaker IQ
What
What's the Resolution and Refresh Rate of Your Eyes?
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: Techquickie
Frame rate comparison in games (60,30,15 fps)
Frame rate comparison in games (60,30,15 fps)
Published: 2015/11/14
Channel: Racing_Digital
What Is Frame Rate? Frame Rate Explained
What Is Frame Rate? Frame Rate Explained
Published: 2014/02/10
Channel: TheMasterOfHell100
Frame rates for animation, 60fps, 30fps and 15fps side by side.
Frame rates for animation, 60fps, 30fps and 15fps side by side.
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: biscuitsalive
Frame Rates Explained ► GoPro Basics 101
Frame Rates Explained ► GoPro Basics 101
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: Tom's Odyssey
Οι Avengers "πάτησαν" τους πάντες! | FRAMERATE
Οι Avengers "πάτησαν" τους πάντες! | FRAMERATE
Published: 2018/05/04
Channel: Unboxholics
Which Frame Rate Should You Use? (ft. Freddie Wong)
Which Frame Rate Should You Use? (ft. Freddie Wong)
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: YouTube Creators [Creator Academy]
Using Frame Rates Creatively
Using Frame Rates Creatively
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: B and H
What Is Video ??
What Is Video ??
Published: 2011/08/02
Channel: Vsauce
ASSASSIN
ASSASSIN'S CREED ΣΤΗΝ ΣΠΑΡΤΗ! | Framerate E3 2018
Published: 2018/06/05
Channel: Unboxholics
Ο Trump θέλει να απαγορεύσει τα βίαια παιχνίδια! | FRAMERATE
Ο Trump θέλει να απαγορεύσει τα βίαια παιχνίδια! | FRAMERATE
Published: 2018/03/06
Channel: Unboxholics
FRAME RATE : Lequel choisir ?
FRAME RATE : Lequel choisir ?
Published: 2018/03/15
Channel: Olivier Schmitt
Μας τρολάρουν κανονικά! | FRAMERATE
Μας τρολάρουν κανονικά! | FRAMERATE
Published: 2018/05/10
Channel: Unboxholics
Why is TV 29.97 frames per second?
Why is TV 29.97 frames per second?
Published: 2016/10/03
Channel: standupmaths
Με συγκατάθεση γονέα πλέον το LoL για τους κάτω των 15! | FRAMERATE
Με συγκατάθεση γονέα πλέον το LoL για τους κάτω των 15! | FRAMERATE
Published: 2018/05/24
Channel: Unboxholics
Does Frame Rate Matter? 🤔 30fps vs 60fps vs 240fps
Does Frame Rate Matter? 🤔 30fps vs 60fps vs 240fps
Published: 2017/10/24
Channel: PC Centric
Fortnite | Switch vs PS4 vs PS4 Pro | Framerate Test | FPS Comparison
Fortnite | Switch vs PS4 vs PS4 Pro | Framerate Test | FPS Comparison
Published: 2018/06/13
Channel: ElAnalistaDeBits
Why Does Framerate Matter
Why Does Framerate Matter
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: BulletBarry
24 vs 48 frames per second skateboarding action footage
24 vs 48 frames per second skateboarding action footage
Published: 2014/12/22
Channel: Adam Shomsky
Difference Between Frame Rate and Shutter Speed?
Difference Between Frame Rate and Shutter Speed?
Published: 2017/12/28
Channel: TECH DRONE MEDIA
[4K] God of War – PS4 vs. PS4 Pro Frame Rate Test & Graphics Comparison
[4K] God of War – PS4 vs. PS4 Pro Frame Rate Test & Graphics Comparison
Published: 2018/04/13
Channel: Candyland
PS5 το 2019 και Assassin’s Creed στην Ελλάδα; | FRAMERATE
PS5 το 2019 και Assassin’s Creed στην Ελλάδα; | FRAMERATE
Published: 2018/03/29
Channel: Unboxholics
¿Qué rayos es el frame rate?
¿Qué rayos es el frame rate?
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: levelup.com
24, 30 or 60 FPS? What
24, 30 or 60 FPS? What's the Best FRAME RATE For VIDEO?
Published: 2018/06/02
Channel: Ed Ricker
Frame Rate - How Does Frame Rate Affect Gameplay? - Extra Credits
Frame Rate - How Does Frame Rate Affect Gameplay? - Extra Credits
Published: 2015/09/23
Channel: Extra Credits
The Frame Rate / Refresh Rate Problem
The Frame Rate / Refresh Rate Problem
Published: 2014/07/09
Channel: 0612 TV w/ NERDfirst
Video Basics: Frame Rate
Video Basics: Frame Rate
Published: 2011/12/15
Channel: Matthew Pearce
The Great Framerate Non-Debate
The Great Framerate Non-Debate
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: TotalBiscuit
Horizon Zero Dawn: Initial PS4/PS4 Pro Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Horizon Zero Dawn: Initial PS4/PS4 Pro Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: DigitalFoundry
CS:GO - Framerate VS Quality
CS:GO - Framerate VS Quality
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: 3kliksphilip
DF Retro: Daytona USA and Why Frame-Rate Has Always Mattered
DF Retro: Daytona USA and Why Frame-Rate Has Always Mattered
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Best Frame Rate for Your Videos
Best Frame Rate for Your Videos
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: Justin Brown - Primal Video
Framerate Live | Gamescom 2016 Special | Unboxholics
Framerate Live | Gamescom 2016 Special | Unboxholics
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Unboxholics
Warframe – PC vs. PS4 vs. Xbox One Frame Rate Test & Graphics Comparison
Warframe – PC vs. PS4 vs. Xbox One Frame Rate Test & Graphics Comparison
Published: 2018/07/16
Channel: Candyland
Framerate Live! | "Consoles vs PCs" | Unboxholics
Framerate Live! | "Consoles vs PCs" | Unboxholics
Published: 2015/08/21
Channel: Unboxholics
God of War PS4 vs PS4 Pro Frame Rate Test
God of War PS4 vs PS4 Pro Frame Rate Test
Published: 2018/04/23
Channel: VG Tech
At which FRAME RATE should you shoot your videos?
At which FRAME RATE should you shoot your videos?
Published: 2018/04/18
Channel: Kellan Reck
Create Smooth Slow Motion Even With Low Frame Rate Footage! (Adobe Premiere Tutorial)
Create Smooth Slow Motion Even With Low Frame Rate Footage! (Adobe Premiere Tutorial)
Published: 2018/07/13
Channel: Max Novak
DOOM – PS4 vs. Switch Frame Rate & Graphics Comparison
DOOM – PS4 vs. Switch Frame Rate & Graphics Comparison
Published: 2017/11/10
Channel: Candyland
TANPA ROOT !! CARA MENGAKTIFKAN MODE HIGH FRAME RATE (60fps) TANPA APK MOD, TANPA ROOT, 100% AMAN
TANPA ROOT !! CARA MENGAKTIFKAN MODE HIGH FRAME RATE (60fps) TANPA APK MOD, TANPA ROOT, 100% AMAN
Published: 2018/05/10
Channel: angga mzrbest
Nier Automata PS4/PS4 Pro Final Code Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Nier Automata PS4/PS4 Pro Final Code Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: DigitalFoundry
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Frame rate (expressed in frames per second or fps) is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames appear on a display. The term applies equally to film and video cameras, computer graphics, and motion capture systems. Frame rate may also be called the frame frequency, and be expressed in hertz.

Frame rate and human vision[edit]

The temporal sensitivity and resolution of human vision varies depending on the type and characteristics of visual stimulus, and it differs between individuals. The human visual system can process 10 to 12 images per second and perceive them individually, while higher rates are perceived as motion.[1] Modulated light (such as a computer display) is perceived as stable by the majority of participants in studies when the rate is higher than 50 Hz through 90 Hz. This perception of modulated light as steady is known as the flicker fusion threshold. However, when the modulated light is non-uniform and contains an image, the flicker fusion threshold can be much higher, in the hundreds of hertz.[2] With regard to image recognition, people have been found to recognize a specific image in an unbroken series of different images, each of which lasts as little as 13 milliseconds.[3] Persistence of vision sometimes accounts for very short single-millisecond visual stimulus having a perceived duration of between 100 ms and 400 ms. Multiple stimuli that are very short are sometimes perceived as a single stimulus, such as a 10 ms green flash of light immediately followed by a 10 ms red flash of light perceived as a single yellow flash of light.[4]

Film and video[edit]

Silent films[edit]

Early silent films had stated frame rates anywhere from 16 to 24 frames per second (fps),[5] but since the cameras were hand-cranked, the rate often changed during the scene to fit the mood. Projectionists could also change the frame rate in the theater by adjusting a rheostat controlling the voltage powering the film-carrying mechanism in the projector.[6] Film companies often intended that theaters show their silent films at higher frame rates than they were filmed at.[7] These frame rates were enough for the sense of motion, but it was perceived as jerky motion. To minimize the perceived flicker, projectors employed dual- and triple-blade shutters, so each frame was displayed two or three times, increasing the flicker rate to 48 or 72 Hertz and reducing eye strain. Thomas Edison said that 46 frames per second was the minimum needed for the eye to perceive motion: "Anything less will strain the eye."[8][9] In the mid to late 1920s, the frame rate for silent films increased to between 20 and 26 fps.[8]

Sound films[edit]

When sound film was introduced in 1926, variations in film speed were no longer tolerated, as the human ear is more sensitive to changes in audio frequency. Many theaters had shown silent films at 22 to 26 fps—which is why the industry chose 24 fps for sound as a compromise.[10] From 1927 to 1930, as various studios updated equipment, the rate of 24 fps became standard for 35 mm sound film.[1] At 24 fps the film travels through the projector at a rate of 456 millimetres (18.0 in) per second. This allowed for simple two-blade shutters to give a projected series of images at 48 per second, satisfying Edison's recommendation. Many modern 35 mm film projectors use three-blade shutters to give 72 images per second—each frame is flashed on screen three times.[8]

Animation[edit]

This animated cartoon of a galloping horse is displayed at 12 drawings per second, and the fast motion is on the edge of being objectionably jerky.

In drawn animation, moving characters are often shot "on twos", that is to say, one drawing is shown for every two frames of film (which usually runs at 24 frames per second), meaning there are only 12 drawings per second. Even though the image update rate is low, the fluidity is satisfactory for most subjects. However, when a character is required to perform a quick movement, it is usually necessary to revert to animating "on ones", as "twos" are too slow to convey the motion adequately. A blend of the two techniques keeps the eye fooled without unnecessary production cost.

Animation for most "Saturday morning cartoons" is produced as cheaply as possible, and is most often shot on "threes", or even "fours", i.e. three or four frames per drawing. This translates to only 8 or 6 drawings per second, respectively.[citation needed]

Modern video standards[edit]

Modern video formats utilize a variety of frame rates. Due to the mains frequency of electric grids, analog television broadcast was developed with frame rates of 50 Hz or 60 Hz, sometimes with video being interlaced so more motion information could be sent on the same available broadcast bandwidth, and sometimes with video being broadcast at 25 or 30 fps with each frame doubled. Film, which was almost universally shot at 24 frames per second, could not be displayed at its native frame rate, which required pulldown conversion, often leading to "judder": to convert 24 frames per second into 60 frames per second, every odd frame is doubled and every even frame is tripled, which creates uneven motion. Other conversions have similar uneven frame doubling. Newer video standards support 120, 240, or 300 frames per second, so frames can be evenly multiplied for common frame rates such as 24 fps film and 30 fps video, as well as 25 and 50 fps video in the case of 300 fps displays. These standards also support video that's natively in higher frame rates, and video with interpolated frames between its native frames.[11] Some modern films are experimenting with frame rates higher than 24 fps, such as 48 and 60 fps.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul; Gamma Group (2000). Restoration of motion picture film. Conservation and Museology. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 24–26. ISBN 0-7506-2793-X. 
  2. ^ James Davis (1986), "Humans perceive flicker artefacts at 500 Hz", Sci Rep, Wiley, 5: 7861, doi:10.1038/srep07861, PMC 4314649Freely accessible, PMID 25644611 
  3. ^ Potter, Mary C. (December 28, 2013). "Detecting meaning in RSVP at 13 ms per picture". Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. SpringerLink. 76: 270–279. doi:10.3758/s13414-013-0605-z. 
  4. ^ Robert Efron. "Conservation of temporal information by perceptual systems". Perception & Psychophysics. 14 (3): 518–530. doi:10.3758/bf03211193. 
  5. ^ Brown, Julie (2014). "Audio-visual Palimpsests: Resynchronizing Silent Films with 'Special' Music". In David Neumeyer. The Oxford Handbook of Film Music Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 588. ISBN 0195328493. 
  6. ^ Kerr, Walter (1975). Silent Clowns. Knopf. p. 36. ISBN 0394469070. 
  7. ^ Card, James (1994). Seductive cinema: the art of silent film. Knopf. p. 53. ISBN 0394572181. 
  8. ^ a b c Brownlow, Kevin (Summer 1980). "Silent Films: What Was the Right Speed?". Sight & Sound. 49 (3): 164–167. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  9. ^ Thomas Elsaesser, Thomas Elsaesser; Barker, Adam (1990). Early cinema: space, frame, narrative. BFI Publishing. p. 284. ISBN 0-85170-244-9. 
  10. ^ TWiT Netcast Network (2017-03-30), How 24 FPS Became Standard, retrieved 2017-03-31 
  11. ^ High Frame-Rate Television, BBC White Paper WHP 169, September 2008, M Armstrong, D Flynn, M Hammond, PAWAN Jahajpuria S Jolly, R Salmon
  12. ^ Jon Fingas (November 27, 2014), "James Cameron's 'Avatar' sequels will stick to 48 frames per second", Engadget, retrieved April 15, 2017 

External links[edit]

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