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Huge Cruise ship through the North Sea Canal   Stop motion
Huge Cruise ship through the North Sea Canal Stop motion
Published: 2013/08/24
Channel: Neil Lark
Cruise ship Costa Fortuna - North Sea Canal
Cruise ship Costa Fortuna - North Sea Canal
Published: 2015/08/25
Channel: TheAviation2009
ms. Prinsendam entering the North Sea Canal Locks.
ms. Prinsendam entering the North Sea Canal Locks.
Published: 2007/08/12
Channel: Maasdam1993
Azura, IJmuiden, North Sea Canal
Azura, IJmuiden, North Sea Canal
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: Mark Hooper
White Sea – Baltic Canal, Russia 4K
White Sea – Baltic Canal, Russia 4K
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: Travel Vlog 4K
Scheepvaart Noordzeekanaal - North Sea Canal shipping, The Netherlands
Scheepvaart Noordzeekanaal - North Sea Canal shipping, The Netherlands
Published: 2013/07/31
Channel: stockshot
Holland
Holland's Barriers to The Sea
Published: 2014/04/19
Channel: Largest Dams
HOLLAND.WINDMILLS .AMSTERDAM RED LIGHT DISTRICT. CRUISE THE NORTH SEA CANAL.
HOLLAND.WINDMILLS .AMSTERDAM RED LIGHT DISTRICT. CRUISE THE NORTH SEA CANAL.
Published: 2016/11/04
Channel: Gordon Jay
Cruise Liner ms "Koningsdam" • Amsterdam Sail Away & Lock Transit to North Sea • Sep 17, 2017
Cruise Liner ms "Koningsdam" • Amsterdam Sail Away & Lock Transit to North Sea • Sep 17, 2017
Published: 2017/12/28
Channel: Anthony P. de Held
Countries and Trade Routes near Mediterranean Sea
Countries and Trade Routes near Mediterranean Sea
Published: 2016/07/29
Channel: Amit Sengupta
Speeding on the North Sea Canal
Speeding on the North Sea Canal
Published: 2015/02/20
Channel: Leon Faber
North Sea Canal  016
North Sea Canal 016
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
Transit via the Kiel Canal
Transit via the Kiel Canal
Published: 2012/09/29
Channel: Zeida Cecilia-Mendez
Best of..... SCHIFFE im NORD-OSTSEE-KANAL -  Mai 2011
Best of..... SCHIFFE im NORD-OSTSEE-KANAL - Mai 2011
Published: 2011/08/12
Channel: thunfisch1967
Traumhaft schöne Fahrt durch den NORD-OSTSEE-KANAL
Traumhaft schöne Fahrt durch den NORD-OSTSEE-KANAL
Published: 2010/11/09
Channel: thunfisch1967
Celebrity Constellation - Depart from Amsterdam to North Sea
Celebrity Constellation - Depart from Amsterdam to North Sea
Published: 2011/08/27
Channel: TheSharkyTube
Sail Out Amsterdam 2015 on the North Sea Canal (4K)
Sail Out Amsterdam 2015 on the North Sea Canal (4K)
Published: 2015/08/25
Channel: 14birdies
Amphibian floatplane takeoff from water PH-PBY Consolidated PBY Catalina at North Sea Canal
Amphibian floatplane takeoff from water PH-PBY Consolidated PBY Catalina at North Sea Canal
Published: 2015/05/11
Channel: Bram van der Sluis
Kiel Canal (NOK) from North Sea to Baltic Sea on M/V Jork
Kiel Canal (NOK) from North Sea to Baltic Sea on M/V Jork
Published: 2015/03/10
Channel: calimero421
Why The Netherlands Isn
Why The Netherlands Isn't Under Water
Published: 2017/10/31
Channel: Real Engineering
€uro @ Danube Ship Canal (North Sea ~ Black Sea)
€uro @ Danube Ship Canal (North Sea ~ Black Sea)
Published: 2015/11/02
Channel: Seaman' Akira3421
נורד סי כאנל.North Sea Canal
נורד סי כאנל.North Sea Canal
Published: 2014/05/14
Channel: AlexG Grimblat
Varsity in the North Sea Canal (Weeknummer 23-06)
Varsity in the North Sea Canal (Weeknummer 23-06)
Published: 2018/01/14
Channel: Creative Commons Media
North Sea Canal 001
North Sea Canal 001
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
Floating bok in the North Sea Canal folded (Weeknummer 40-18)
Floating bok in the North Sea Canal folded (Weeknummer 40-18)
Published: 2018/01/30
Channel: Creative Commons Media
Hoogovens IJmuiden - Royal Dutch Blast Furnaces and Steelworks at North Sea Canal
Hoogovens IJmuiden - Royal Dutch Blast Furnaces and Steelworks at North Sea Canal
Published: 2013/07/26
Channel: stockshot
Passenger ship passing by very closely at North Sea Canal, IJmuiden (DFDS Seaways)
Passenger ship passing by very closely at North Sea Canal, IJmuiden (DFDS Seaways)
Published: 2015/09/30
Channel: Just4fun
QV015 - Queen Victoria (timelapse video North Sea Canal to Amsterdam)
QV015 - Queen Victoria (timelapse video North Sea Canal to Amsterdam)
Published: 2010/09/19
Channel: lunaticg
Front seat on FastFerry Amsterdam - IJmuiden along the North Sea Canal 2013 11 28
Front seat on FastFerry Amsterdam - IJmuiden along the North Sea Canal 2013 11 28
Published: 2013/12/20
Channel: spoorus
North Sea Canal  003
North Sea Canal 003
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
North Sea Canal #2
North Sea Canal #2
Published: 2016/08/05
Channel: ColdMountainWater
North Sea Canal  012
North Sea Canal 012
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
Cruise ship Costa Fortuna - North Sea Canal
Cruise ship Costa Fortuna - North Sea Canal
Published: 2017/11/10
Channel: Eduard Schumacher
Azura, North Sea Canal
Azura, North Sea Canal
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: Mark Hooper
North Sea Canal  017
North Sea Canal 017
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
North Sea Canal  007
North Sea Canal 007
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
'Aprilis' North Sea Canal 2011
Published: 2011/07/17
Channel: chrissteel3
North Sea Canal  019
North Sea Canal 019
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
North Sea Canal  008
North Sea Canal 008
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
Hurtigruten MS Midnatsol north sea canal
Hurtigruten MS Midnatsol north sea canal
Published: 2016/10/24
Channel: Unofficial Hurtigruten Ship News
SUEZ CANAL - Full Passage from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea
SUEZ CANAL - Full Passage from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: Aloke K. Bose
Voshkod2-m-FFF on the Northsea canal.
Voshkod2-m-FFF on the Northsea canal.
Published: 2007/08/09
Channel: makkie12
North Sea Canal  013
North Sea Canal 013
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
North Sea Canal  018
North Sea Canal 018
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
FPV DJI Phantom 2 North Sea-Baltic Canal Edited with GoPro
FPV DJI Phantom 2 North Sea-Baltic Canal Edited with GoPro
Published: 2014/03/13
Channel: Hamburger Alsterwasser
North Sea Canal  004
North Sea Canal 004
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
Amsterdam City from sea canals...
Amsterdam City from sea canals...
Published: 2015/03/09
Channel: Ashutosh Kumar Pandey
North Sea Canal  005
North Sea Canal 005
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
Tugboat on Northsea canal
Tugboat on Northsea canal
Published: 2008/01/23
Channel: wesko666
North Sea Canal  015
North Sea Canal 015
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Sarawak
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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North Sea Canal (Noordzeekanaal)
Nzkanaal3.jpg
Country Netherlands
Province North Holland
Source IJ
 - location Amsterdam
 - coordinates 52°23′45″N 4°53′30″E / 52.39583°N 4.89167°E / 52.39583; 4.89167
Mouth North Sea
 - location IJmuiden
 - elevation 0 m (0 ft)
 - coordinates 52°27′50″N 4°33′30″E / 52.46389°N 4.55833°E / 52.46389; 4.55833Coordinates: 52°27′50″N 4°33′30″E / 52.46389°N 4.55833°E / 52.46389; 4.55833
Length 25 km (16 mi)
Location Noordzeekanaal.PNG
Location of canal in dark blue.

The North Sea Canal (Dutch: Noordzeekanaal) is a Dutch ship canal from Amsterdam to the North Sea at IJmuiden, constructed between 1865 and 1876 to enable seafaring vessels to reach the port of Amsterdam.[1] This man-made channel terminates at Amsterdam in the closed-off IJ Bay, which in turn connects to the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal.

The drainage of the canal to the North Sea is done through the Spui Locks at IJmuiden, augmented by the largest pumping station in Europe. This system is vital to the groundwater management of the Western Netherlands.

History[edit]

To improve the connection between the harbour of Amsterdam and the North Sea, the North Holland Canal was built in 1824. But this long and narrow canal was quickly inadequate to handle the growing boat traffic. A few decades later it was decided to dig a new canal at the narrowest point in Holland and thereby providing the shortest route to the sea.

Digging began on 8 March 1865, at the dunes of Breesaap and lasted until 1876. Since no Dutch company was willing to take on this task, the project was awarded to an English contractor.[citation needed]

The North Sea Canal was built by digging a channel through the old IJ Bay and lining it with dikes, after which the remaining portions of the IJ Bay were reclaimed and turned into polders. From this bay to the sea, a new canal was dug through the dunes at Velsen. To accommodate drainage of and shipping on the tributaries of the IJ, such as the Spaarne, the Zaan, and the Nauerna Canal, nine auxiliary canals needed to be dug as well (Side Canals "A" to "I").

A small set of locks (Zuidersluis) were built at the mouth in 1876 where the new town of IJmuiden (Dutch for "IJ Mouth") formed. In 1896 the Middle Locks (Middensluis) were built, followed by the North Locks (Noordersluis) in 1929, which were Europe's largest locks at that time.

Historic map of Velsen showing the western portion of the IJ and the planned route of the canal.

At the eastern end of the canal, east of Amsterdam, the IJ Bay was open to the Zuiderzee until 1872 when the Orange Locks (Oranjesluizen) were built. With the completion of these locks the North Sea Canal and IJ Bay were no longer open to the sea and a specific water level could be maintained.

The canal was dug using manual labour. The workers lived in horrid conditions, being housed in huts built from twigs, driftwood, sod, and straw, where disease, fights, and alcohol abuse were rampant. [2]

On 1 November 1876, the North Sea Canal was officially opened by King William III of the Netherlands. Over the years the canal has been widened and deepened several times.

Side canals[edit]

The North Sea Canal and the IJ have 10 side canals (in Dutch: Zijkanaal), which connect to rivers and other canals which used to flow into the former IJ Bay before its reclamation.

Satellite photo
  • Zijkanaal A - connects the harbour of Beverwijk to the North Sea Canal, also an inundation canal of the Stelling van Amsterdam.
  • Zijkanaal B - connected Spaarndam to the North Sea Canal, but was cut off from it by the construction of the A9 motorway in the 1960s. It is now used for canoeing and mooring of houseboats.
  • Zijkanaal C - connects the Spaarne river at Spaarndam to the North Sea Canal at Buitenhuizen, and also functions as the main drainage canal of the Rijnland water board. The A9 motorway has an operable bridge over this side canal.
  • Zijkanaal D - connects the Nauerna Canal to the North Sea Canal.
  • Zijkanaal E - a very short canal connecting the south end of Westzaan to the North Sea Canal.
  • Zijkanaal F - connected Halfweg to the North Sea Canal, but is now mostly backfilled. A small portion remains and is used as a drainage canal.
  • Zijkanaal G - connects Zaandam and the Zaan River to the North Sea Canal.
  • Zijkanaal H - connects the Barndegat to the North Sea Canal.
  • Zijkanaal I - connects the East Zaan Overtoom to the IJ Bay.
  • Zijkanaal K - connects the harbour of Nieuwendam to the IJ Bay.

Approach[edit]

Vessels with a draft of more than 14 metres should use the IJgeul.

To protect access to the channel jetties were built in the sea.

In 1957 the Delft Hydraulics Laboratory began research for the best solution. The result was two jettties with 500 m difference in length between the southern and the northern one. The length of the north pier should be 1500 m to 2500 m and the south jetty of about 3000 m. This is to prevent the silting of the entrance channel and to ensure that vessels entering suffer less from the prevailing south-west and north-south flow along the coast.

Locks[edit]

Mouth and locks at the North Sea.
Entrance to the South Locks from sea. Being the oldest locks in the complex, they are now the main passage for recreational vessels and smaller inland ships.

There are four locks, of various sizes at the North Sea mouth of the canal: [3] When the north canal lock was opened in 1929 it was the largest canal lock in the world. [4]

name completed dimensions (L x W x D)
meters
dimensions (L x W x D)
feet
South 1876 110 x 20 x 8 360 x 65 x 26
Small 1876 110 x 11 x 3.5 360 x 36 x 11
Middle 1896 225 x 25 x 10 738 x 82 x 33
North 1929 400 x 50 x 15 1312 x 164 x 49
New sealock 2019 500 x 70 x 18 1640 x 230 x 59

Crossings[edit]

Railway tunnels (with nearest train station on the south and north bank):

Road tunnels, from east to west:

The most western crossing is the road over the locks. The route depends on which of the locks is closed.

Several ferries. In Amsterdam there are several across the IJ; at least one is frequent, operating 24 hours a day, free of charge.

Bicyclists may only cross the canal at the locks or in the very south of Amsterdam or via ferries. Tunnels for bicyclists still do not exist.

References[edit]

  1. ^ A bird's-eye view of the Canal[permanent dead link] at the Amsterdam City Archives
  2. ^ Connie Braam, De Woede van Abraham, 2000, Amsterdam, ISBN 978-90-457-0222-3
  3. ^ Letter, from an official, in response to a query on the lock dimensions.
  4. ^ "Biggest Canal Lock Opened in Holland.' Popular Science Monthly, September 1930, p. 29.

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