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OverTime "Hunger In My Stomach" OFFICIAL VIDEO - Lyrics In Description
OverTime "Hunger In My Stomach" OFFICIAL VIDEO - Lyrics In Description
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: OverTime
Jahvon Quinerly Brings JELLY To The Overtime Challenge! ISAIAH WASHINGTON Pulls Up To Play 1-1 🍇
Jahvon Quinerly Brings JELLY To The Overtime Challenge! ISAIAH WASHINGTON Pulls Up To Play 1-1 🍇
Published: 2018/04/15
Channel: Overtime
Fortnite with Ninja | Dude Perfect
Fortnite with Ninja | Dude Perfect
Published: 2018/05/07
Channel: Dude Perfect
OverTime - Next To Me (Lyrics In The Description)
OverTime - Next To Me (Lyrics In The Description)
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: OverTime
OverTime - "Move Over" feat. Elair OFFICIAL VIDEO
OverTime - "Move Over" feat. Elair OFFICIAL VIDEO
Published: 2016/07/04
Channel: OverTime
OverTime "No Sunshine" (Official Music Video)
OverTime "No Sunshine" (Official Music Video)
Published: 2017/09/22
Channel: OverTime
Cash Cash - Overtime
Cash Cash - Overtime
Published: 2013/01/08
Channel: Proximity
Bryson Tiller - Overtime (Audio)
Bryson Tiller - Overtime (Audio)
Published: 2015/10/02
Channel: BrysonTillerVEVO
Mac McClung Brings The BOUNCE In The Overtime Challenge! Calls Out JELLYFAM
Mac McClung Brings The BOUNCE In The Overtime Challenge! Calls Out JELLYFAM'S JQ!
Published: 2018/03/18
Channel: Overtime
OverTime "Bad Attitude" (Official Video)
OverTime "Bad Attitude" (Official Video)
Published: 2018/03/14
Channel: OverTime
OverTime - "The Foundation" OFFICIAL VIDEO
OverTime - "The Foundation" OFFICIAL VIDEO
Published: 2016/03/01
Channel: OverTime
ScHoolboy Q - Overtime ft. Miguel, Justine Skye
ScHoolboy Q - Overtime ft. Miguel, Justine Skye
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: ScHoolBoyQVEVO
Rapper A Boogie Goes BEAST MODE In Overtime Challenge! Backpack Kid Pulls Up With WHO!? 😱
Rapper A Boogie Goes BEAST MODE In Overtime Challenge! Backpack Kid Pulls Up With WHO!? 😱
Published: 2018/06/17
Channel: Overtime
OverTime - Backwoods (feat. Cordell Drake) **Official Video**
OverTime - Backwoods (feat. Cordell Drake) **Official Video**
Published: 2017/04/10
Channel: OverTime
Crush a Diamond with a Hammer? | Dude Perfect
Crush a Diamond with a Hammer? | Dude Perfect
Published: 2018/01/08
Channel: Dude Perfect
Obamas, Civil War, Civility | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Obamas, Civil War, Civility | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Published: 2018/06/30
Channel: Real Time with Bill Maher
Darius Garland CAN
Darius Garland CAN'T MISS In The Overtime Challenge! Fires Back At Jellyfam JQ & Calls Out A BOOGIE!
Published: 2018/05/27
Channel: Overtime
Overtime (Live Band sesh) - KNOWER
Overtime (Live Band sesh) - KNOWER
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: KNOWER MUSIC
"I Realized He Was Special At 9 Years Old." Jaden Springer Is A Basketball PRODIGY 😱
"I Realized He Was Special At 9 Years Old." Jaden Springer Is A Basketball PRODIGY 😱
Published: 2018/07/09
Channel: Overtime
Shareef O’Neal Tries SUMO WRESTLING In Overtime Challenge! Calls Out BOUNCE BRO Cassius Stanley!
Shareef O’Neal Tries SUMO WRESTLING In Overtime Challenge! Calls Out BOUNCE BRO Cassius Stanley!
Published: 2018/02/10
Channel: Overtime
World
World's Longest LEGO Walk | Dude Perfect
Published: 2018/03/05
Channel: Dude Perfect
OverTime - All The Way Good (Official Video)
OverTime - All The Way Good (Official Video)
Published: 2017/07/31
Channel: OverTime
Political Alliances, Gun Laws, Mental Health | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Political Alliances, Gun Laws, Mental Health | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Published: 2018/06/23
Channel: Real Time with Bill Maher
Cash cash - overtime 1 hora
Cash cash - overtime 1 hora
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: Records Musics
Overtime (feat. Sebastian Reynoso & KYLE)
Overtime (feat. Sebastian Reynoso & KYLE)
Published: 2018/04/12
Channel: KYLE - Topic
Cassius Stanley PUNCHES BACK At Shareef O
Cassius Stanley PUNCHES BACK At Shareef O'Neal In The Overtime Challenge! Calls Out MAC MCCLUNG 🔥
Published: 2018/02/25
Channel: Overtime
Same Old Story - OverTime Feat. Dice (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Same Old Story - OverTime Feat. Dice (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Published: 2014/09/20
Channel: OverTime
OverTime - "Johnny Rotten" (Official Video)
OverTime - "Johnny Rotten" (Official Video)
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: OverTime
Trump’s Personal Driver Sues Him For 25 Years Of Unpaid Overtime Work
Trump’s Personal Driver Sues Him For 25 Years Of Unpaid Overtime Work
Published: 2018/07/14
Channel: The Ring of Fire
Tristan Jass Misses Wide Open LAYUPS! Gets EXPOSED On Lie Detector 😂
Tristan Jass Misses Wide Open LAYUPS! Gets EXPOSED On Lie Detector 😂
Published: 2018/07/11
Channel: Overtime
Post-American World, Never-Trumpers, Minority Republicans | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Post-American World, Never-Trumpers, Minority Republicans | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Published: 2018/06/09
Channel: Real Time with Bill Maher
Carnage - "Overtime" (ft. Sebastian Reynoso & KYLE)
Carnage - "Overtime" (ft. Sebastian Reynoso & KYLE)
Published: 2018/04/13
Channel: Carnage
DRIFT BOT WANTS A 10000 HP CAR! - Job Simulator Infinite Overtime VR Modded 2018 Gameplay
DRIFT BOT WANTS A 10000 HP CAR! - Job Simulator Infinite Overtime VR Modded 2018 Gameplay
Published: 2018/07/14
Channel: GrayStillPlays
OverTime - Say What
OverTime - Say What's Real
Published: 2015/11/22
Channel: OverTime
"We Have To Be The CUTEST CLASS!" Zion Williamson, RJ Barrett, Cam Reddish & Tre Jones EXCLUSIVE 😂
"We Have To Be The CUTEST CLASS!" Zion Williamson, RJ Barrett, Cam Reddish & Tre Jones EXCLUSIVE 😂
Published: 2018/03/29
Channel: Overtime
FILAYYYY Went COOKING With Overtime Larry! Viral Star Talks About Filayyyy vs JELLY 🍇
FILAYYYY Went COOKING With Overtime Larry! Viral Star Talks About Filayyyy vs JELLY 🍇
Published: 2018/05/08
Channel: Overtime
“How Many Girlfriends Do You Have?” Darius Garland Has NO CHILL With McDonald’s All American 😂
“How Many Girlfriends Do You Have?” Darius Garland Has NO CHILL With McDonald’s All American 😂
Published: 2018/03/30
Channel: Overtime
Luther Muhammad Talks TRASH In Lie Detector! “I Told Westbrook I’d Give Him 30!” 😂
Luther Muhammad Talks TRASH In Lie Detector! “I Told Westbrook I’d Give Him 30!” 😂
Published: 2018/07/05
Channel: Overtime
Privitization, NRA, #MeToo Wall Street, Civil Service | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Privitization, NRA, #MeToo Wall Street, Civil Service | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Published: 2018/03/17
Channel: Real Time with Bill Maher
There
There's No Dunk He Can't Do. Jam Fam's Niven Glover Talks Bounce, Zion Williamson & Mac McClung!
Published: 2018/07/06
Channel: Overtime
overtime mikellino
overtime mikellino
Published: 2018/07/10
Channel: chimo idk
"1,000 Shots A Day... Since He Was 5 Years Old." Jalen Suggs Is The TOUGHEST Player In The Nation!
"1,000 Shots A Day... Since He Was 5 Years Old." Jalen Suggs Is The TOUGHEST Player In The Nation!
Published: 2018/07/04
Channel: Overtime
What Is Your RELATIONSHIP STATUS!?  Zion Williamson, RJ Barrett, Cam Reddish & Tre Jones Open Up!
What Is Your RELATIONSHIP STATUS!? Zion Williamson, RJ Barrett, Cam Reddish & Tre Jones Open Up!
Published: 2018/04/01
Channel: Overtime
Polarized Politics, Border Control and Leaders in Environmentalism | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Polarized Politics, Border Control and Leaders in Environmentalism | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Published: 2018/05/12
Channel: Real Time with Bill Maher
Economic Priorities, Mueller Time, Sinking Bipartisanship | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Economic Priorities, Mueller Time, Sinking Bipartisanship | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Published: 2018/02/10
Channel: Real Time with Bill Maher
What DRIVES Jordan McCabe: "I
What DRIVES Jordan McCabe: "I'll Always Be The 5'11" Unathletic Kid From A Small Town"
Published: 2018/03/04
Channel: Overtime
Scottie Lewis Claps Back At JELLYFAM In The Overtime Challenge! JAM FAM Is Next!
Scottie Lewis Claps Back At JELLYFAM In The Overtime Challenge! JAM FAM Is Next!
Published: 2017/10/29
Channel: Overtime
Post-Trump World, GOP Split, Black History Month | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Post-Trump World, GOP Split, Black History Month | Overtime with Bill Maher (HBO)
Published: 2018/02/03
Channel: Real Time with Bill Maher
Cole Anthony & Kofi Cockburn BATTLE FOR NYC In First Overtime Challenge FACE-OFF!
Cole Anthony & Kofi Cockburn BATTLE FOR NYC In First Overtime Challenge FACE-OFF!
Published: 2018/01/14
Channel: Overtime
TV Patrol: Isyu sa overtime pay, idinahilan ng BI sa mahabang pila sa airports
TV Patrol: Isyu sa overtime pay, idinahilan ng BI sa mahabang pila sa airports
Published: 2018/07/13
Channel: ABS-CBN News
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Overtime is the amount of time someone works beyond normal working hours. The term is also used for the pay received for this time. Normal hours may be determined in several ways:

  • by custom (what is considered healthy or reasonable by society),
  • by practices of a given trade or profession,
  • by legislation,
  • by agreement between employers and workers or their representatives.

Most nations have overtime labour laws designed to dissuade or prevent employers from forcing their employees to work excessively long hours (such as the situation in the textile mills in the 1920s). These laws may take into account other considerations than humanitarian concerns, such as preserving the health of workers so that they may continue to be productive, or increasing the overall level of employment in the economy. One common approach to regulating overtime is to require employers to pay workers at a higher hourly rate for overtime work. Companies may choose to pay workers higher overtime pay even if not obliged to do so by law, particularly if they believe that they face a backward bending supply curve of labour.

Overtime pay rates can cause workers to work longer hours than they would at a flat hourly rate. Overtime laws, attitudes toward overtime and hours of work vary greatly from country to country and between different economic sectors.

Time off in lieu[edit]

Time off in lieu; compensatory time; or comp time refers to a type of work schedule arrangement that allows (or requires) workers to take time off instead of, or in addition to, receiving overtime pay. A worker may receive overtime pay plus equal time off for each hour worked on certain agreed days, such as public holidays.

In the United States, such arrangements are currently legal in the public sector but not in the private sector.[1]

For example, non-exempt workers must receive at least one and one half times their normal hourly wage for every hour worked beyond 40 hours in a work week. For example, workers who clock 48 hours in one week would receive the pay equivalent to 52 hours of work (40 hours + 8 hours at 1.5 times the normal hourly wage). With comp time, the worker could (or would have to) forgo the 12 hours of overtime pay and instead take 8 paid hours off at some future date.[clarification needed][citation needed]

In some other jurisdictions, such as Canada, employers might be required to pay the overtime at the higher rate (e.g. 1.5 times the normal rate), but also be allowed to require time off in lieu at the normal rate. Thus, an employee might work 48 hours in one week, and 32 hours the next week (assuming over 40 hours is overtime), and be paid an extra amount equivalent to 4 hours work (8 multiplied by 0.5).

In Australia, such arrangements both in the private and public sector are common.

In some cases, particularly when employees are represented by a labour union, overtime may be paid at a higher rate than 1.5 times the hourly pay. In some factories, for example, if workers are required to work on a Sunday, they may be paid twice their regular rate (i.e., "double time").

Overtime laws by jurisdiction[edit]

European Union[edit]

Directives issued by the European Union must be incorporated into law by member states.

Directives 93/104/EC (1993), 2000/34/EC (2000), which limited working hours, were consolidated into 2003/88/EC (2003). Employers and employees can agree to opt out, under certain circumstances.

The directives require:[2]

  • maximum average working week (including overtime) of 48 hours over a 17-week reference period
  • minimum daily rest period of 11 consecutive hours in every 24
  • breaks when the working day exceeds 6 hours
  • minimum weekly rest period of 24 hours plus the 11 hours daily rest period in every 7-day period
  • minimum of 4 weeks paid annual leave
  • night work restricted to an average of 8 hours in any 24-hour period

The directives apply to:

  • all sectors of activity, both public and private
  • Doctors in training used to work a maximum week of 58 hours until 2009. From 1 August 2009 their maximum working week fell to 48 hours.

Exemptions:

  • Member States of the EC may exempt: managing executives or other persons with autonomous decision-making power; family workers; and workers officiating at religious ceremonies. These are workers whose working time is not measured or pre-determined or can be determined by the workers.
  • Other categories can be exempted from the directive's key provisions provided compensatory rest or appropriate protection is granted. These include employees who work a long way from home, or whose activities require a permanent presence or continuity of service or production, or who work in sectors which have peaks of activity. Examples include off-shore workers, security guards, journalists, emergency workers, agricultural workers, tour guides, etc.

Japan[edit]

In Japan the Labour Standards Act (労働基準法) of 1947 provides for an eight-hour work day and 40-hour workweek with at least one day off per week. The act requires a premium of at least 25% over the ordinary hourly wage for any overtime work, 35% for any work on prescribed off days, and an additional 25% for any work between 10 pm and 5 am.[3] Employers must enter into an overtime agreement with a labour representative prior to any overtime work by employees, and this agreement must stipulate to the maximum number of overtime hours that an employee may work, which may be no more than 15 hours per week, 45 hours per month and 360 hours per year.[4]

United States[edit]

Federal overtime law[edit]

In the United States the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 applies to employees in industries engaged in or producing goods for interstate commerce. The FLSA establishes a standard work week of 40 hours for certain kinds of workers, and mandates payment for overtime hours to those workers of one and one-half times the workers' normal rate of pay for any time worked above 40 hours.

The law creates two broad categories of employees,

  • those who are "exempt" from the regulation and
  • those who are "non-exempt".

Employers are not required to pay exempt employees overtime but must do so for non-exempt employees.

Exempt[edit]

Independent contractors are not considered employees and therefore are not protected by the FLSA. Several factors determine whether a worker is an employee, who might be entitled to overtime compensation, or an independent contractor, who would not be so entitled. The employment agreement stating that a party is an independent contractor does not make it necessarily so. The nature of a job determines whether an employee is entitled to overtime pay, not employment status or the field of work. [5]

Classes of workers who are exempt from the regulation include

  • certain types of administrative,
  • professional, and
  • executive employees.

To qualify as an administrative, professional, or executive employee and therefore not be entitled to overtime, three tests must be passed based on salary basis, duties, and salary level. The tests vary between administrative, professional, and executive employees based on their different duties and salary levels. There are many other classes of workers who may be exempt including outside salespeople, certain agricultural employees, certain live-in employees, and certain transportation employees. Employees can neither waive their FLSA protections nor abridge them by contract.

USA Protections[edit]

An employer may not retaliate[6] against an employee for filing a complaint or instituting a proceeding based on the FLSA. An employer that engages in any form of verifiable retaliation would be liable under the Fair Labor Standards Act Section 216(b) for equitable relief including reinstatement, promotion, payment of lost wages, and payment of liquidated damages. Acts of retaliation include terminating employment, disrupting the workplace, threats, acts of physical violence, and constructive discharge.

USA statistics[edit]

Out of approximately 120 million American workers, nearly 50 million are exempt from overtime laws (US Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division, 1998). In 2004, the United States was 7th out of 24 OECD countries in terms of annual working hours per worker. (See Working time for a complete listing.) In 2015, the United States Department of Labor proposed dramatic changes to certain exemptions from federal minimum wage and overtime requirements. These changes are anticipated to take effect in July 2016, but as of January 2016, still are pending final approval.[7] Proposed changes include: setting the minimum salary level required for exemption for full-time salaried workers at $970 per week, or $50,440 annually (an increase from the current $455 per week, or $23,660 annually) Increasing the total annual compensation required to exempt highly compensated employees to $122,148 annually (from the current $100,000 annually).[8]

On August 23, 2004, President George W. Bush and the Department of Labor proposed changes to regulations governing implementation of the law. According to one study, the changes would have had significant impact on the number of workers covered by overtime laws and have exempted several million additional workers.[9] The Bush administration maintained that the practical impact on working Americans would be minimal and that the changes would help clarify an outdated regulation. In particular, the new rules would have allowed more companies to offer flextime to their workers in lieu of overtime. The definition of exempt employees (ineligible for overtime) is regularly tested in the courts. A recent case is Encino Motorcars v. Navarro, which addresses the question of whether automobile dealer service advisors are eligible for overtime.

A company may harm themselves by docking a salaried employee for disciplinary reasons.

"Once pay is reduced using an hourly calculation, ... the employee is considered nonexempt, and so is every other worker in that job group."[10]


Uber (company) is an example of a company that, in various jurisdictions, has encountered various legal problems regarding exemptions. The New York Times noted in 2017 that "Despite their appeal, the apps have faced a wave of criticism, including concerns over wheelchair accessibility and driver pay."[11]

California overtime law[edit]

The state of California's overtime laws differ from federal overtime laws in many respects, and they involve overlapping statutes, regulations, and precedents that govern the compensation of employees in California.

  • Governing federal law is the Fair Labor Standards Act (29 USC 201-219)
  • California overtime law is codified in provisions of:

California employers must comply with both, since there are two sources of applicable law (federal and state).

In California, based on California Labor Code 1171, only an employment relationship is required for overtime rules to apply. Under the California Industrial Welfare Commission Wage Orders, an "employer" is "any person ... who directly or indirectly, or through an agent or any other person, employs or exercises control over wages, hours, or working conditions of any person." Under the California Labor Code, an "employee" is "[any] person, including aliens and minors, rendering actual service in any business for an employer, whether gratuitously or for wages or pay, whether the wages or pay are measured by the standard of time, piece, task, commission, or other method of calculation, and whether the service is rendered on a commission, concessionaire, or other basis."

California: who is covered[edit]

Independent contractors are not employees covered by overtime laws, so it is important to determine if a worker is an independent contractor or an employee. Under California law, workers are generally presumed to be employees, not Independent contractors. The proper classification of individuals as Independent contractors must, therefore, pass one or more of the various multi-part tests for determining eligibility.[13]

Foremost, pursuant to California Labor Code Section 510, non-exempt employees must be compensated at one and a half times the regular rate of pay for all hours worked in excess of eight hours in a workday, 40 hours in a workweek and the first eight hours of a seventh consecutive workday. Employees in California are entitled to double-time for working more than twelve hour workdays or more than eight hours on the seventh consecutive workday of a single workweek. Under federal law there are only 40 hour weekly overtime limits. This eight hour overtime limit in California frequently gives rise to wage-and-hour litigation for violations of state, but not federal, labour laws.

For example, "comp time" schemes, where employers tell employees that since they worked 10 hours on Monday they can work 6 hours on Tuesday, are illegal because even though the employees are not working more than 40 hours for the purposes of overtime compensation under federal law, they are working more than 8 hours for purposes of California overtime law and rounding the 6- and 10-hour workdays to two 8-hour workdays would cheat the employee out of two hours of overtime pay.

Perhaps the biggest difference between California and federal overtime law relates to the administrative exemption's "primarily engaged" in duties that meet the test for the exemption requirement, such as duties that involve exercising independent discretion and judgment as set forth in the controversial Order No. 4. Whereas under the Fair Labor Standards Act "primarily engaged" does not necessarily mean at least half, under California wage-and-hour laws, less than half of exempt duties automatically eliminates the overtime exemption.

California's Labor Code Section 510 was amended and Section 511.5 added in 2016 pursuant to the California Workplace Flexibility Act of 2016. Pursuant to these changes, non-exempt workers have additional options to agree to work beyond eight hours in a workday without triggering an overtime pay obligation.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See 29 U.S.C. 207(o)
  2. ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32003L0088
  3. ^ "法定労働時間と割増賃金について教えてください。". 労働基準局監督課. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  4. ^ "時間外労働の 限度に関する基準" (PDF). 厚生労働省・都道府県労働局・労働基準監督署. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  5. ^ "Wage and Hour Division Questions and Answers". United States Department of Labor. 
  6. ^ "Can My Employer Retaliate Against Me for Seeking To Get Overtime? - findUSlaw". finduslaw.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  7. ^ Ceglowski, Kevin (15 December 2015). "Changes to Minimum Wage and Overtime Exemptions Expected by July 2016". The National Law Review. Poyner Spruill LLP. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  8. ^ Huntington, R. Calder (30 June 2015). "New Overtime Rules: $970 Per Week Salary Proposed For White Collar Exemptions in 2016". The National Law Review . Holland & Hart LLP. ISSN 2161-3362. 
  9. ^ (Economic Policy Institute) Archived December 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Marie Leone (May 2001). "Whitewashing Blue Collars". CFO. p. 16. 
  11. ^ EMMA G. FITZSIMMONS; WINNIE HU (March 6, 2017). "The Downside of Ride-Hailing: More New York City Gridlock". NYTimes.com. 
  12. ^ DIR. "DIR - IWC Home Page". www.dir.ca.gov. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  13. ^ "Independent Contractors". scalaw.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  14. ^ "Overtime Pay". scalaw.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 

Further reading[edit]

  • US Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division, Minimum Wage and Overtime Hours Under the Fair Labor Standards Act: 1998 Report to the Congress Required by Section 4(d)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, tab. 2 at 14 (1998).

External links[edit]

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