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Star Wars: All Opening Crawl 1-8
Star Wars: All Opening Crawl 1-8
Published: 2018/01/05
Channel: John Rosello
Star Wars (1977) original opening crawl
Star Wars (1977) original opening crawl
Published: 2015/04/19
Channel: allluckyseven
All 7 Star Wars Opening Crawls (HD)
All 7 Star Wars Opening Crawls (HD)
Published: 2015/12/20
Channel: AMB Pineapple
Star Wars - Opening Scene (1977) [1080p HD]
Star Wars - Opening Scene (1977) [1080p HD]
Published: 2015/03/09
Channel: Marcelo Zuniga
[Official] Star Wars VII The Force Awakens Opening Crawl - 1080p
[Official] Star Wars VII The Force Awakens Opening Crawl - 1080p
Published: 2015/12/21
Channel: samsote
Star Wars - All Opening Crawls (HD)
Star Wars - All Opening Crawls (HD)
Published: 2015/11/22
Channel: UltraDangerLord
Rogue One Opening Crawl
Rogue One Opening Crawl
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Likeonions
STAR WARS: Episode IX (2019) - Opening Crawl [4K] - (FANMADE)
STAR WARS: Episode IX (2019) - Opening Crawl [4K] - (FANMADE)
Published: 2018/05/05
Channel: Rey Skywalker
A New Hope
A New Hope's opening crawl but it's an intro to The Clone Wars
Published: 2018/03/31
Channel: Ben Kelder
Solo: A Star Wars Story - Opening Crawl
Solo: A Star Wars Story - Opening Crawl
Published: 2018/05/24
Channel: Stercore
Star Wars: Episode IX - A Rebellion Reborn (Opening Crawl)
Star Wars: Episode IX - A Rebellion Reborn (Opening Crawl)
Published: 2018/07/06
Channel: Victoria's Cantina
Star Wars Episode IX Opening Crawl Revealed?! (Nerdist Presents)
Star Wars Episode IX Opening Crawl Revealed?! (Nerdist Presents)
Published: 2018/01/29
Channel: Nerdist
STAAR Wars Opening Crawl.wmv
STAAR Wars Opening Crawl.wmv
Published: 2012/02/19
Channel: wmualum1991
Star Wars Episode VIII: The Last Jedi - Intro (Opening Crawl)
Star Wars Episode VIII: The Last Jedi - Intro (Opening Crawl)
Published: 2018/03/16
Channel: Josh Mandes MJ
Every Star Wars Crawl At Once
Every Star Wars Crawl At Once
Published: 2016/04/17
Channel: Scott Hollingsworth
Opening Crawl - Star Wars: A New Hope
Opening Crawl - Star Wars: A New Hope
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: RKR2
SW The Last Jedi Opening Crawl 4K Recreation (SPOILERS!!!)
SW The Last Jedi Opening Crawl 4K Recreation (SPOILERS!!!)
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: CNCcamon1
Star Flash Gordon Wars
Star Flash Gordon Wars
Published: 2011/09/15
Channel: thorgak
A New Hope Opening Sequence (HD)
A New Hope Opening Sequence (HD)
Published: 2016/12/27
Channel: The Corrupt Senate
STAR WARS THE LAST JEDI OPENING CRAWL (OFFICIAL)
STAR WARS THE LAST JEDI OPENING CRAWL (OFFICIAL)
Published: 2017/12/16
Channel: Wee Joe FC TV
Star Wars: The Last Jedi OPENING CRAWL (OFFICIAL)
Star Wars: The Last Jedi OPENING CRAWL (OFFICIAL)
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: J.N. JR STUDIOS
How to Create the Star Wars Opening Crawl in After Effects
How to Create the Star Wars Opening Crawl in After Effects
Published: 2015/05/05
Channel: Spencer Ng
Disney
Disney's Star Wars: Episode IX - Opening Crawl
Published: 2012/11/01
Channel: jedsithor
STAR TREK : Star Wars-style Opening Crawl
STAR TREK : Star Wars-style Opening Crawl
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: High Ground Productions
Star Wars Live Opening Crawl, NY Philharmonic
Star Wars Live Opening Crawl, NY Philharmonic
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: Pete&Ruth Carstens
Opening Scene - The Phantom Menace [1080p HD]
Opening Scene - The Phantom Menace [1080p HD]
Published: 2015/03/09
Channel: Marcelo Zuniga
Star Wars: The Force Awakens Opening Crawl (OFFICIAL)
Star Wars: The Force Awakens Opening Crawl (OFFICIAL)
Published: 2016/04/13
Channel: Venomstrike375
Star Wars: A New Hope Opening Crawl in 4K [2.35:1]
Star Wars: A New Hope Opening Crawl in 4K [2.35:1]
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: Spencer Ng
Star Wars The Force Awakens Original Crawl/Intro
Star Wars The Force Awakens Original Crawl/Intro
Published: 2016/04/25
Channel: Dominic Perez
Star Wars - Rogue One: Where Rebels Dare (Fanedit) Opening Crawl
Star Wars - Rogue One: Where Rebels Dare (Fanedit) Opening Crawl
Published: 2018/04/26
Channel: TM2YC
How to Make Star Wars Opening Crawl in HitFilm Express!
How to Make Star Wars Opening Crawl in HitFilm Express!
Published: 2017/12/08
Channel: Film Sensei
Star Wars Opening Crawl and Planet Tilt - After Effects
Star Wars Opening Crawl and Planet Tilt - After Effects
Published: 2010/05/13
Channel: HorizonProductions92
Family Guy - All Star Wars Openings
Family Guy - All Star Wars Openings
Published: 2012/08/19
Channel: MrSlimRaW
Star Wars original trilogy opening crawls in Japanese
Star Wars original trilogy opening crawls in Japanese
Published: 2016/02/05
Channel: AdamKNAC
Opening Scene - Empire Strikes Back [1080p HD]
Opening Scene - Empire Strikes Back [1080p HD]
Published: 2015/03/09
Channel: Marcelo Zuniga
Star Wars The Last Jedi| Opening Crawl/Scene 2017
Star Wars The Last Jedi| Opening Crawl/Scene 2017
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: Eli's Eclipse
Honest Opening Crawls - Star Wars: Episode 1 - The Phantom Menace
Honest Opening Crawls - Star Wars: Episode 1 - The Phantom Menace
Published: 2015/02/21
Channel: Micah Newman
Star Wars Episode 9 OPENING CRAWL FAN MADE
Star Wars Episode 9 OPENING CRAWL FAN MADE
Published: 2018/01/03
Channel: Darth Geros
Star Wars Shadows Of The Empire Opening Crawl
Star Wars Shadows Of The Empire Opening Crawl
Published: 2016/07/20
Channel: Kylo Ren II
Solo Has An Opening Crawl But There Is A Catch! (Solo A Star Wars Story)
Solo Has An Opening Crawl But There Is A Catch! (Solo A Star Wars Story)
Published: 2018/05/23
Channel: MIKE ZEROH
All 7 Star Wars Crawls at the same time!
All 7 Star Wars Crawls at the same time!
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: bush did 9/11
Star Wars: Episode VIII - The Last Jedi - Opening Crawl (FANMADE)
Star Wars: Episode VIII - The Last Jedi - Opening Crawl (FANMADE)
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: NekiTamoL1K
Star Wars (1977) opening crawl concept with alternate logo (read desc. for more)
Star Wars (1977) opening crawl concept with alternate logo (read desc. for more)
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: Venkyra21
Star Wars: The Old Republic - Sith Warrior Opening Crawl (Developer Blog)
Star Wars: The Old Republic - Sith Warrior Opening Crawl (Developer Blog)
Published: 2011/07/15
Channel: Teraskas
How To: Create Star Wars Crawling Text in Sony Vegas
How To: Create Star Wars Crawling Text in Sony Vegas
Published: 2016/04/21
Channel: CasualSavage
How to make the famous Star Wars title crawl in Premiere Pro and After Effects
How to make the famous Star Wars title crawl in Premiere Pro and After Effects
Published: 2015/11/29
Channel: VideoRevealed
Rogue One A Star Wars Story | NO Opening Crawl Confirmed??
Rogue One A Star Wars Story | NO Opening Crawl Confirmed??
Published: 2016/07/18
Channel: MIKE ZEROH
Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith - Opening Scene (1080p HD)
Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith - Opening Scene (1080p HD)
Published: 2016/10/30
Channel: Vincenté Fett
Star Wars opening crawl After Effects template
Star Wars opening crawl After Effects template
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: BRGriffinFilms
Star wars opening crawl After effects Tutorial German
Star wars opening crawl After effects Tutorial German
Published: 2012/08/08
Channel: Philipp Dreier
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The three shots which constitute the opening sequence: the phrase "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away....", the Star Wars logo and the opening text, from the beginning of Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope.

The opening crawl is the signature device of every numbered film of the Star Wars series, an American epic space opera franchise created by George Lucas. It opens with the static blue text, "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away....", followed by the Star Wars logo and the crawl text, which describes the backstory and context of the film. The visuals are accompanied by the "Main Title Theme", composed and conducted by John Williams.

The sequence has been featured in every live-action Star Wars film produced by Lucasfilm with the exception of Rogue One and Solo, though the latter contains some background text at the beginning, just not in the same style. Although it retains the basic elements, it has significantly evolved throughout the series. It is one of the most immediately recognizable elements of the franchise and has been frequently parodied.

Structure[edit]

Each film opens with the static blue text, "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away....", followed by the Star Wars logo shrinking in front of a field of stars. Initially the logo's extremities are beyond the edge of the frame. While the logo is retreating, the "crawl" text begins, starting with the film's episode number and subtitle (with the exception of the original release of Star Wars – see below), and followed by a three-paragraph prologue to the film. The text scrolls up and away from the bottom of the screen towards a vanishing point above the top of the frame in a perspective projection. Each version of the opening crawl ends with a four-dot ellipsis, except for Return of the Jedi which has a three-dot ellipsis. When the text has nearly reached the vanishing point, it fades out, the camera tilts down (or, in the case of Episode II: Attack of the Clones, up), and the film begins.[1]

Two typefaces are used in the text, both in yellow: News Gothic for the episode number and main body of the text, and Univers Ultra Condensed Light for the title of the film.[2] Three subtle exceptions were made to Star Wars, The Empire Strikes Back and The Force Awakens,[3] as the titles of the films were presented in News Gothic. Several words are in all-capital letters to stress their importance: "DEATH STAR" in Star Wars, "GALACTIC EMPIRE" in Return of the Jedi, "ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC" in Attack of the Clones, and "FIRST ORDER", "REPUBLIC" and "RESISTANCE" in The Force Awakens. Each line of the text spans the width of the screen when it enters from the bottom. In the "fullscreen" (4:3 aspect ratio for standard-definition television) versions of the films, the full lines of text are cut off on the sides until they have scrolled further onto the screen. As a result, by the time the full lines are visible, the text is much smaller and harder to read. In addition, the viewer also has less time to read it.

Origin[edit]

The opening crawl as seen at the beginning of an episode of Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe.
The opening crawl of Cecil B. DeMille's Union Pacific (1939)
Dan Perri's rejected Star Wars logotype

Lucas has stated that the opening crawl was inspired by the opening crawls used at the beginning of each episode of the original Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers film serials, which were the inspiration for Lucas to write much of the Star Wars saga.[4] The development of the opening crawl came about as part of a collaboration between Lucas and the seasoned film title designer Dan Perri. In 1976, Lucas invited Perri to Industrial Light & Magic, Lucasfilm's post-production operation at Van Nuys, California. Perri, who had previously worked on Close Encounters of the Third Kind and The Exorcist, suggested that they take inspiration from the 1939 Cecil B. DeMille film, Union Pacific, whose opening credits are shown distorted by a sharp perspective and rolling along a railroad track towards a distant vanishing point. Lucas was keen on the idea and Perri developed sketches and prototype mechanical artwork. One of the earliest iterations of the opening crawl is evidenced in storyboards drawn by the production artist Alex Tavoularis, depicting the title “THE STAR WARS” as a three-dimensional logo.[5]

Perri also designed a logotype, consisting of block-capital letters filled with stars and skewed towards a vanishing point to follow the same perspective as the opening crawl. Lucas eventually rejected Perri's logo due to readability problems, turning instead to the graphic designer Suzy Rice, an art director at the Los Angeles advertising agency Seiniger Advertising. Lucas had commissioned Rice to design a promotional brochure that was to be distributed to cinema theatre owners. He instructed Rice to produce a logo that would intimidate the viewer, and he reportedly asked for the logo to appear "very fascist" in style. Rice, inspired by historical German typography, produced a bold logotype using an outlined, modified Helvetica Black. After some feedback from Lucas, Rice decided to join the S and T of STAR and the R and S of WARS. Lucas's producer, Gary Kurtz, found that Rice's logo worked well in the opening title; the logo was modified further to flatten the pointed tips on the letter W before it was inserted into the final cut. While Perri's skewed logo did not appear on-screen, it was used widely on pre-release print advertising, and it featured prominently on film posters promoting the release of Star Wars on cinema billboards in 1977 (notably Tom Jung's Style ‘A’ poster, the Style ‘B’ poster by the Brothers Hildebrandt and Tom Chantrell's Style ‘C’ poster).[6][7]

In a 2005 interview, George Lucas described how the final phrasing of the text for Star Wars came about. "The crawl is such a hard thing because you have to be careful that you're not using too many words that people don't understand. It's like a poem. I showed the very first crawl to a bunch of friends of mine in the 1970s. It went on for six paragraphs with four sentences each. Brian De Palma was there...". De Palma helped to edit the text into the form used in the film.[8]

Production[edit]

According to Dennis Muren, who worked on the six films, crawls on the original trilogy films were accomplished by filming physical models laid out on the floor. The models were approximately 60 cm (2') wide and 1.80 m (6') long. The crawl effect was accomplished by the camera moving longitudinally along the model. It was difficult and time-consuming to achieve a smooth scrolling effect. Furthermore, different versions in other languages (such as German, French and Spanish) were produced by Industrial Light & Magic.[1][9]

With the advent of computer-generated graphics, the crawls for the prequel trilogy were achieved much more quickly.[1] The 2004 DVD special edition versions of the original trilogy were later updated with computer-generated crawls as part of their restoration and enhancement.

Lucasfilm president Kathleen Kennedy stated that the 2016 spin-off film Rogue One would "more than likely" eschew certain traditional elements of the franchise, including the crawl, in an effort to distinguish it from the main film series.[10] In fact, Rogue One retains "A long time ago, in a galaxy far, far, away...", but then immediately cuts to the opening scene with no crawl. At the end of the opening scene, the title "ROGUE ONE" recedes against a star field, like the "STAR WARS" title of the main series, then there is a cut to the next scene.

The second spin-off film Solo does not feature a crawl, but does feature an introductory text shown sentence by sentence in the same font and color as and immediately after "A long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away...". This places it halfway between Rogue One and the main saga[11]

Episode IV opening crawl[edit]

The opening crawl in the first Star Wars film is very different from Lucas' original intention. The original text, used in the rough cut he showed to friends and studio executives in February 1977, appears in the Marvel Comics adaptation of the film.[12] When originally released in May 1977, the first film was simply titled Star Wars, as 20th Century Fox forbade Lucas to use a subtitle because it could be confusing, since there had been no other Star Wars movies prior to 1977.[1][9] In addition, it was not certain if the film would be followed with a sequel. When The Empire Strikes Back was released in 1980, the episode number, "Episode V", and subtitle "THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK" appeared as the first two lines of the opening crawl. To match its sequel's crawl, the episode number "Episode IV" and subtitle "A NEW HOPE" were added for the film's theatrical re-release in April 1981.[13] The original version, without the subtitle, was not released again until the 2006 limited edition DVDs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace DVD commentary
  2. ^ [1]. Univers 49 Light Ultra Condensed from Linotype
  3. ^ "Does The Force Awakens Crawl Use The Wrong Font?". 
  4. ^ Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith DVD commentary
  5. ^ Perkins, Will (16 December 2015). "Star Wars". Art of the Title. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  6. ^ Taylor, Chris (2014). "11. The First Reel". How Star Wars Conquered the Universe: The Past, Present, and Future of a Multibillion Dollar Franchise. Head of Zeus. ISBN 9781784970451. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  7. ^ "Evolution of the Star Wars Poster". PhotoSecrets.com. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017. 
  8. ^ Pearlman, Cindy (May 15, 2005). The Force. Chicago Sun-Times.
  9. ^ a b Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope DVD commentary
  10. ^ Alexander, Julia (November 22, 2016). "Rogue One is bucking a Star Wars tradition". Polygon. Vox Media. Retrieved March 13, 2018. 
  11. ^ Does Solo: A Star Wars Story have an opening crawl?
  12. ^ Thomas, Roy (2007-06-01). "Star Wars: The Comic Book That Saved Marvel!". starwars.com. Retrieved December 5, 2012. [dead link]
  13. ^ "Star Wars: Episode IV A New Hope". StarWars.com. 

External links[edit]

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