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Bitcoin Protocol Explained - Timestamp Server / Global Ledger
Bitcoin Protocol Explained - Timestamp Server / Global Ledger
Published: 2014/02/02
Channel: sentdex
Crypto Stamp, Secure Timestamping Using Bitcoin
Crypto Stamp, Secure Timestamping Using Bitcoin
Published: 2014/01/21
Channel: crypto stamp
Trusted Timestamping with Originstamp.org
Trusted Timestamping with Originstamp.org
Published: 2018/06/17
Channel: Bela Gipp
Linked timestamping - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Linked timestamping - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: Wiz Science™
What
What's Timestamping? - Riccardo Casatta @ Blockchain and Crypto Values Conference
Published: 2018/07/17
Channel: Codemotion
Timestamping on Blockchain – Deloitte EMEA GRID Blockchain Lab
Timestamping on Blockchain – Deloitte EMEA GRID Blockchain Lab
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: Deloitte Italia
Timestamping Service
Timestamping Service
Published: 2013/08/08
Channel: Department of Industry, Innovation and Science
What is TRANSIENT-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does TRANSIENT-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY mean?
What is TRANSIENT-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does TRANSIENT-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY mean?
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: The Audiopedia
DevCore 2015: How to build a Bitcoin timestamping app in 30 minutes
DevCore 2015: How to build a Bitcoin timestamping app in 30 minutes
Published: 2015/06/02
Channel: Vinumeris
ANKR ICO Review | Proof of Useful Work
ANKR ICO Review | Proof of Useful Work
Published: 2018/05/30
Channel: ICO HUNCH
What are certificates?
What are certificates?
Published: 2013/06/18
Channel: itfreetraining
New Patent Eyes Blockchain Timestamping for Property Contracts
New Patent Eyes Blockchain Timestamping for Property Contracts
Published: 2018/06/22
Channel: Blockchain News
Blockchain 101 Ep 44 - Blockchain, the trust machine
Blockchain 101 Ep 44 - Blockchain, the trust machine
Published: 2018/07/17
Channel: Huobi Pro
The DAO - Decentralized Autonomous Organizations - Crypto the WonderDog
The DAO - Decentralized Autonomous Organizations - Crypto the WonderDog
Published: 2018/07/13
Channel: Crypto The Wonder Dog
bitnation document timestamping
bitnation document timestamping
Published: 2016/03/21
Channel: Loke KS
Top 10 Worst As Seen on TV Items Ever
Top 10 Worst As Seen on TV Items Ever
Published: 2016/03/05
Channel: WatchMojo.com
GEENS -  Privacy Focused Blockchain Timestamping Services
GEENS - Privacy Focused Blockchain Timestamping Services
Published: 2017/11/12
Channel: Rayjell Anajao
New Patent Eyes Blockchain Timestamping for Property Contracts
New Patent Eyes Blockchain Timestamping for Property Contracts
Published: 2018/06/22
Channel: Coin News
VerifyValid - Finovate
VerifyValid - Finovate
Published: 2014/12/01
Channel: Zions TV
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations with Christian Kameir of Sustany Capital -- Crypto the Wonder
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations with Christian Kameir of Sustany Capital -- Crypto the Wonder
Published: 2018/07/13
Channel: Crypto The Wonder Dog
Aragon Overview
Aragon Overview
Published: 2018/01/17
Channel: TWiT Netcast Network
Another Top 10 Gordon Ramsay Outbursts
Another Top 10 Gordon Ramsay Outbursts
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: WatchMojo.com
Top 10 Failed McDonald’s Products
Top 10 Failed McDonald’s Products
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: WatchMojo.com
#8 PKI continued
#8 PKI continued
Published: 2014/11/30
Channel: ralienpp
Blockchain and OpenStack - Building Trusted Chains
Blockchain and OpenStack - Building Trusted Chains
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: OpenStack Foundation
Geens platform and GEE Token
Geens platform and GEE Token
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: Geens NPO
Top 10 Surprisingly Down-to-Earth Celebrities
Top 10 Surprisingly Down-to-Earth Celebrities
Published: 2016/12/25
Channel: WatchMojo.com
Add a new document for IP protection, copyrighting, proof of existence, time stamping, etc.
Add a new document for IP protection, copyrighting, proof of existence, time stamping, etc.
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: DocVerify - E-Signatures & E-Notary
Jean-Jacques Quisquater - 25 years of blockchain and continuing to improve it  for the citizen
Jean-Jacques Quisquater - 25 years of blockchain and continuing to improve it for the citizen
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: iMAL Brussels
Veridocx - tour and walkthrough
Veridocx - tour and walkthrough
Published: 2012/11/19
Channel: Veridocx
Data Integrity and Intellectual Property Protection
Data Integrity and Intellectual Property Protection
Published: 2011/04/01
Channel: SuretyAbsoluteProof
How Does Bitcoin Work?  An Detailed Overview for Those Who Are Not Familiar with Cryptography
How Does Bitcoin Work? An Detailed Overview for Those Who Are Not Familiar with Cryptography
Published: 2013/12/06
Channel: Global Economic Collapse
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Published: 2017/06/20
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Published: 2018/06/29
Channel: ICO HUNCH
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Trusted timestamping is the process of securely keeping track of the creation and modification time of a document. Security here means that no one—not even the owner of the document—should be able to change it once it has been recorded provided that the timestamper's integrity is never compromised.

The administrative aspect involves setting up a publicly available, trusted timestamp management infrastructure to collect, process and renew timestamps.

History[edit]

The idea of timestamping information is centuries old. For example, when Robert Hooke discovered Hooke's law in 1660, he did not want to publish it yet, but wanted to be able to claim priority. So he published the anagram ceiiinosssttuv and later published the translation ut tensio sic vis (Latin for "as is the extension, so is the force"). Similarly, Galileo first published his discovery of the phases of Venus in the anagram form.

Sir Isaac Newton, in responding to questions from Leibniz in a letter in 1677, concealed the details of his "fluxional technique" with an anagram:

The foundations of these operations is evident enough, in fact; but because I cannot proceed with the explanation of it now, I have preferred to conceal it thus: 6accdae13eff7i3l9n4o4qrr4s8t12ux. On this foundation I have also tried to simplify the theories which concern the squaring of curves, and I have arrived at certain general Theorems.

Classification[edit]

There are many timestamping schemes with different security goals:

  • PKI-based - timestamp token is protected using PKI digital signature.
  • Linking-based schemes - timestamp is generated such a way that it is related to other timestamps.
  • Distributed schemes - timestamp is generated in cooperation of multiple parties.
  • Transient key scheme - variant of PKI with short-living signing keys.
  • MAC - simple secret key based scheme, found in ANSI ASC X9.95 Standard.
  • Database - document hashes are stored in trusted archive; there is online lookup service for verification.
  • Hybrid schemes - the linked and signed method is prevailing, see X9.95.

Coverage in standards:

Scheme RFC 3161 X9.95 ISO/IEC 18014
PKI Yes Yes Yes
Linked Yes Yes
MAC Yes
Database Yes
Transient key Yes
Linked and signed Yes

For systematic classification and evaluation of timestamping schemes see works by Masashi Une.[1]

Trusted (digital) timestamping[edit]

Getting a timestamp from a trusted third party

According to the RFC 3161 standard, a trusted timestamp is a timestamp issued by a Trusted Third Party (TTP) acting as a Time Stamping Authority (TSA). It is used to prove the existence of certain data before a certain point (e.g. contracts, research data, medical records, ...) without the possibility that the owner can backdate the timestamps. Multiple TSAs can be used to increase reliability and reduce vulnerability.

The newer ANSI ASC X9.95 Standard for trusted timestamps augments the RFC 3161 standard with data-level security requirements to ensure data integrity against a reliable time source that is provable to any third party. This standard has been applied to authenticating digitally signed data for regulatory compliance, financial transactions, and legal evidence.

Creating a timestamp[edit]

The technique is based on digital signatures and hash functions. First a hash is calculated from the data. A hash is a sort of digital fingerprint of the original data: a string of bits that is practically impossible to duplicate with any other set of data. If the original data is changed then this will result in a completely different hash. This hash is sent to the TSA. The TSA concatenates a timestamp to the hash and calculates the hash of this concatenation. This hash is in turn digitally signed with the private key of the TSA. This signed hash + the timestamp is sent back to the requester of the timestamp who stores these with the original data (see diagram).

Since the original data cannot be calculated from the hash (because the hash function is a one way function), the TSA never gets to see the original data, which allows the use of this method for confidential data.

Checking the timestamp[edit]

Checking correctness of a timestamp generated by a time stamping authority (TSA)

Anyone trusting the timestamper can then verify that the document was not created after the date that the timestamper vouches. It can also no longer be repudiated that the requester of the timestamp was in possession of the original data at the time given by the timestamp. To prove this (see diagram) the hash of the original data is calculated, the timestamp given by the TSA is appended to it and the hash of the result of this concatenation is calculated, call this hash A.

Then the digital signature of the TSA needs to be validated. This can be done by checking that the signed hash provided by the TSA was indeed signed with their private key by digital signature verification. The hash A is compared with the hash B inside the signed TSA message to confirm they are equal, proving that the timestamp and message is unaltered and was issued by the TSA. If not, then either the timestamp was altered or the timestamp was not issued by the TSA.

Decentralized timestamping on the blockchain[edit]

With the advent of cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, it has become possible to securely timestamp information in a decentralized and tamper-proof manner. Digital data can be hashed and the hash can be incorporated into a transaction stored in the blockchain, which serves as a secure proof of the exact time at which that data existed.[2][3] The proof is due to a tremendous amount of computational effort performed after the hash was submitted to the blockchain. Tampering with the timestamp would also lead to breaking the integrity of the entire digital currency,[4] and this would result in the digital currency devaluing to zero.[4]

The decentralized timestamping approach using the blockchain has also found applications in other areas, such as in dashboard cameras, to secure the integrity of video files at the time of their recording,[5] or to prove priority for creative content and ideas shared on social media platforms.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Une, Masashi (2001). "The Security Evaluation of Time Stamping Schemes: The Present Situation and Studies". IMES Discussion Papers Series 2001-E-18. 
  2. ^ Jones, Shawn M. (2017-04-20). "2017-04-20: Trusted Timestamping of Mementos". ws-dl.blogspot.de. Retrieved 2017-10-30. 
  3. ^ Gipp, B., Meuschke, N. and Gernandt, A., 2015 "Decentralized Trusted Timestamping using the Crypto Currency Bitcoin." in Proceedings of the iConference 2015. March 2015, Newport Beach, California.
  4. ^ a b May, Stefan (2016). "Blockchain - die Verkettung der Welt" Spektrum der Wissenschaft.
  5. ^ B. Gipp, J. Kosti, and C. Breitinger. 2016. "Securing Video Integrity Using Decentralized Trusted Timestamping on the Blockchain" in Proceedings of the 10th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Paphos, Cyprus.
  6. ^ C. Breitinger, B. Gipp. 2017. "VirtualPatent – Enabling the Traceability of Ideas Shared Online using Decentralized Trusted Timestamping" in Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium of Information Science, Berlin, 2017.

External links[edit]

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