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The Netherlands, Holland and The Low Countries - The Difference
The Netherlands, Holland and The Low Countries - The Difference
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: History With Hilbert
Holland vs the Netherlands
Holland vs the Netherlands
Published: 2012/12/22
Channel: CGP Grey
United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839) "Wien Neêrlands Bloed" (1815) +EngSub
United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839) "Wien Neêrlands Bloed" (1815) +EngSub
Published: 2018/01/05
Channel: Norwegian Baron
Why is the Netherlands a kingdom?
Why is the Netherlands a kingdom?
Published: 2015/12/07
Channel: All things Dutch
The Current Dutch Empire (Kingdom Of The Netherlands)
The Current Dutch Empire (Kingdom Of The Netherlands)
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: ibx2cat
Belgian Revolution 1830-1831
Belgian Revolution 1830-1831
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: Dutch Docu Channel
Why did the United Kingdom of the Netherlands broke up?
Why did the United Kingdom of the Netherlands broke up?
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: BeneluxBox
The Netherlands is not a Country
The Netherlands is not a Country
Published: 2017/12/18
Channel: Mr Cognito
The Netherlands (Holland) - Around the Country In 23 minutes.
The Netherlands (Holland) - Around the Country In 23 minutes.
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: Timosha21
United Kingdom Of The Netherlands
United Kingdom Of The Netherlands
Published: 2017/11/23
Channel: FrogCast
How Powerful Are The Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg?
How Powerful Are The Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg?
Published: 2015/06/27
Channel: NowThis World
The Netherlands in HD
The Netherlands in HD
Published: 2013/05/12
Channel: Dutch Docu Channel
About The Netherlands: provinces, name, rivers / Over Nederland: provincies / Dutch culture
About The Netherlands: provinces, name, rivers / Over Nederland: provincies / Dutch culture
Published: 2012/08/17
Channel: Learn Dutch Online With Rozemarijn
United Kingdom of the Netherlands
United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Published: 2015/12/24
Channel: WikiAudio
A royal tour - 200 years Kingdom of the Netherlands
A royal tour - 200 years Kingdom of the Netherlands
Published: 2014/02/27
Channel: holland.com
The Truth About Immigration and Crime in the Netherlands
The Truth About Immigration and Crime in the Netherlands
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: Stefan Molyneux
America First - The Netherlands Second - Donald Trump Zondag met Lubach
America First - The Netherlands Second - Donald Trump Zondag met Lubach
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: vpro zondag met lubach
10 FACTS ABOUT THE NETHERLANDS | GoFacts
10 FACTS ABOUT THE NETHERLANDS | GoFacts
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: GoFacts
The kingdom of the Netherlands
The kingdom of the Netherlands
Published: 2015/06/02
Channel: DQUACK
Armed Forces of the kingdom of the Netherlands 2016 statistics
Armed Forces of the kingdom of the Netherlands 2016 statistics
Published: 2015/10/01
Channel: martijn Dutc.h-GameFilm-Works
United Kingdom vs Netherlands Military Power Comparison 2016
United Kingdom vs Netherlands Military Power Comparison 2016
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: FirePower
Ferry Corsten - Passport - Kingdom Of The Netherlands (CD1)
Ferry Corsten - Passport - Kingdom Of The Netherlands (CD1)
Published: 2015/12/07
Channel: Bogdan Nicolae Cojocaru 3
Kingdom of the Netherlands "Het Wilhelmus and Military Marches"
Kingdom of the Netherlands "Het Wilhelmus and Military Marches"
Published: 2017/01/07
Channel: Norwegian Baron
The Modern Dutch Empire: Territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Explained
The Modern Dutch Empire: Territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Explained
Published: 2018/07/12
Channel: Morrethy
Het Wilhelmus: Anthem of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Patriotic Version)
Het Wilhelmus: Anthem of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Patriotic Version)
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: History Tributes
President @realdonaldtrump greets Prime Minister Rutte of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. 🇺🇸 🇳🇱
President @realdonaldtrump greets Prime Minister Rutte of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. 🇺🇸 🇳🇱
Published: 2018/07/02
Channel: Anthony Peltier
Wouter Reijers (Honorary Consul of The United Kingdom of Netherlands) at Startup Grind Cluj Napoca
Wouter Reijers (Honorary Consul of The United Kingdom of Netherlands) at Startup Grind Cluj Napoca
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: Startup Grind Local
Battle Of Waterloo In Belgium (kingdom Of The Netherlands)
Battle Of Waterloo In Belgium (kingdom Of The Netherlands)
Published: 2015/06/19
Channel: Land of Europe
Surinamese Independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1975)
Surinamese Independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1975)
Published: 2011/06/27
Channel: Krifko
Inauguration Day 2013; The Royal Succession, Kingdom of the Netherlands
Inauguration Day 2013; The Royal Succession, Kingdom of the Netherlands
Published: 2013/07/04
Channel: Pimpwhippa Vatan
NETHERLANDS vs UNITED KINGDOM Military Power Comparison - Dutch Army VS British Army
NETHERLANDS vs UNITED KINGDOM Military Power Comparison - Dutch Army VS British Army
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: World Military Power
Samurai Japan vs. Team Kingdom of the Netherlands - highlights
Samurai Japan vs. Team Kingdom of the Netherlands - highlights
Published: 2017/02/13
Channel: KNBSB
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Published: 2014/07/26
Channel: Audiopedia
National Anthem: Netherlands - Wilhelmus
National Anthem: Netherlands - Wilhelmus
Published: 2015/08/25
Channel: Ian Berwick
Amsterdam, Capital of Kingdom of the Netherlands - Best Travel Destination
Amsterdam, Capital of Kingdom of the Netherlands - Best Travel Destination
Published: 2015/01/02
Channel: Best Travel Destination
The Kingdom of The Netherlands
The Kingdom of The Netherlands
Published: 2017/11/08
Channel: Vienna Reyes
Napoleon: Total War - Online Battle #05: United Kingdom of the Netherlands vs France
Napoleon: Total War - Online Battle #05: United Kingdom of the Netherlands vs France
Published: 2014/03/03
Channel: SwedishLandsknekt
Team Kingdom of the Netherlands vs Duitsland
Team Kingdom of the Netherlands vs Duitsland
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Hans van Leuven
When Did The Netherlands Become A Kingdom?
When Did The Netherlands Become A Kingdom?
Published: 2017/09/04
Channel: Question Shared
Ferry Corsten - Passport - Kingdom Of The Netherlands (CD2)
Ferry Corsten - Passport - Kingdom Of The Netherlands (CD2)
Published: 2015/12/11
Channel: Bogdan Nicolae Cojocaru 3
The Netherlands vs United Kingdom
The Netherlands vs United Kingdom
Published: 2009/03/05
Channel: Duco Vaillant
Interview with Dirk jan Kop, Ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Interview with Dirk jan Kop, Ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: ustelevisionnetwork
Flag Map of The Kingdom of The Netherlands
Flag Map of The Kingdom of The Netherlands
Published: 2018/04/21
Channel: Turbo -
Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815-****) "Wilhelmus"
Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815-****) "Wilhelmus"
Published: 2016/04/02
Channel: Norwegian Baron
200 year celebration Kingdom of The Netherlands
200 year celebration Kingdom of The Netherlands
Published: 2013/12/02
Channel: Ian Knoop
What Are The Countries That Make Up The Netherlands?
What Are The Countries That Make Up The Netherlands?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: Question Shared
Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: Countries, cities,places and all about them!
What Countries Are A Part Of The Netherlands?
What Countries Are A Part Of The Netherlands?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: Question Shared
Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Published: 2015/12/06
Channel: Countries, cities,places and all about them!
the Kingdom of the Netherlands Embassy - King
the Kingdom of the Netherlands Embassy - King's Day Ceremony 2016
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: citylightskw
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden  (Dutch)
Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas  (French)
1815–1839
Motto
"Je maintiendrai" (French)
"I will uphold"
Anthem
Wien Neêrlands Bloed
"Those in whom Dutch blood"
Location of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands (dark green) in 1815 in Europe (dark grey). The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (light green) is also shown.
Capital Amsterdam and Brussels
Languages Dutch (official) and French (official in Wallonia)
Religion Dutch Reformed
Roman Catholic
Government Constitutional monarchy
King
 •  1815–1839 William I
Legislature States General
 •  Upper house Senate
 •  Lower house House of Representatives
Historical era Late modern period
 •  Congress of Vienna 16 March 1815
 •  Constitution adopted 24 August 1815
 •  Belgian Revolution 25 August 1830
 •  Treaty of London 19 April 1839
Currency Dutch guilder
Preceded by
Succeeded by
First French Empire
Netherlands
Duchy of Limburg (1839–1867)
Luxembourg
Belgium

The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name given to the Kingdom of the Netherlands as it existed between 1815 and 1839. The United Netherlands was created in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars through the fusion of territories that had belonged to the former Dutch Republic, Austrian Netherlands, and Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The polity was a constitutional monarchy, ruled by William I of the House of Orange-Nassau.

The polity collapsed in 1830 with the outbreak of the Belgian Revolution. With the de facto secession of Belgium, the Netherlands was left as a rump state and refused to recognise Belgian independence until 1839 when the Treaty of London was signed, fixing the border between the two states and guaranteeing Belgian independence and neutrality as the Kingdom of Belgium.

Background[edit]

Before the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802), the Low Countries was a patchwork of different polities created by the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648). The Dutch Republic in the north was independent, while the Southern Netherlands was split between the Austrian Netherlands and Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The former was part of Habsburg Austria and both were part of the Holy Roman Empire. In the aftermath of the French Revolution, the War of the First Coalition broke out in 1792 and France was invaded by Prussia and the Holy Roman Empire. After two years of fighting, the Austrian Netherlands and Liège were captured by the French in 1794 and annexed into France. The Dutch Republic collapsed in 1795 and became a French client state.

Creation of the United Netherlands[edit]

A British cartoon, satirising the "wedding" of Belgium and the Netherlands at the Congress of Vienna

In 1813, the Netherlands was liberated from French rule by Prussian and Russian troops during the Napoleonic Wars. The son of the last Dutch stadhouder, William Frederik of Orange-Nassau (the future King William I), was installed as the "sovereign prince" of a new Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands. The future of the Southern Netherlands, however, was less clear. In June 1814, the Great Powers secretly agreed to the Eight Articles of London which allocated the region to the Dutch as William had advocated.

Discussions on the future of the region were still ongoing at the Congress of Vienna when Napoleon attempted return to power in the "Hundred Days". William used the occasion to declare himself king on 16 March 1815. After the Battle of Waterloo, discussions continued.

In exchange for the Southern Netherlands, William agreed to cede the Principality of Orange-Nassau and parts of the Liège to Prussia on 31 May 1815. In exchange, William also gained control over the Duchy of Luxembourg was elevated a grand duchy and placed in personal and political union with the Netherlands, though it remained part of the German Confederation.

Government[edit]

Constitution and government[edit]

Though the United Netherlands was a constitutional monarchy, the king retained significant control as head of state and head of government. Beneath the king was a bicameral legislature known as the States General with a Senate and House of Representatives. From the start, the administrative system proved controversial. Representation in the 110-seat House of Representatives, for example, was divided equally between south and north, although the former had a larger population. This was resented in the south, which believed that the government was dominated by northerners.

King William I, depicted in 1819

Provinces[edit]

Map of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands

The United Netherlands was divided into 17 provinces and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg which was constitutionally distinct. Many were based on the pre-existing départements, established by the French. They included:

The United Netherlands was also a colonial power with overseas colonies in the East Indies and elsewhere.

Economic policy[edit]

Dutch troops in the Flemish town of Dendermonde in 1820

Economically, the United Netherlands prospered. Supported by the state, the Industrial Revolution began to affect the Southern Netherlands where a number of modern industries emerged, encouraged by figures such as John Cockerill who created the steel industry in Wallonia. Antwerp emerged as major trading port.

William I actively supported economic modernisation. Modern universities were established at Leuven, Liège, and Ghent in 1817. Lower education was also extended. The General Netherlands Society for Advancing National Industry (Algemeene Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter Begunstiging van de Volksvlijt) was created in 1822 to encourage industrialisation in the south, while the Netherlands Trading Society (Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij) was created in 1825 to encourage trade with the colonies. William I also embarked on a programme of canal building that saw the creation of the North Holland, Ghent–Terneuzen and Brussels–Charleroi canals.

Regional tensions[edit]

Differences between Southern and Northern Netherlands were never totally effaced. The two were divided by the issue of religion because the south was strongly Roman Catholic and the north largely Dutch Reformed. The Catholic Church in Belgium resented the state's encroachment on its traditional privileges, especially in education. In French-speaking parts of the south, attempts to enforce the use of Dutch language were particularly resented among the elite. Many Belgians believed that the United Netherlands' constitution discriminated against them. Though they represented 62 percent of the population, they were only allocated 50 percent of the seats in the House and less in the Senate while the state extracted money from the richer south to subsidise the north. By the mid-1820s, a union of opposition had formed in Belgium, uniting liberals and Catholic conservatives against Dutch rule.

Belgian Revolution and secession[edit]

Fighting between Belgian rebels and the Dutch military expedition in Brussels in September 1830

The Belgian Revolution broke out on 25 August 1830, inspired by the recent July Revolution in France. A military intervention in September failed to defeat the rebels in Brussels, radicalising the movement. Belgium was declared an independent state on 4 October 1830. A constitutional monarchy was established under King Leopold I.

William I refused to accept the secession of Belgium. In August 1831, he launched the Ten Days' Campaign, a major military offensive into Belgium. Though initially successful, the French intervened to support the Belgians and the invasion had to be abandoned. After a period of tension, a settlement was agreed at the Treaty of London in 1839. The Dutch recognised Belgian independence, in exchange for territorial concessions. The frontier between the two countries was finally fixed by the Treaty of Maastricht. Luxembourg became an autonomous state in personal union with the Dutch, though ceding some territory to Belgium.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Part of a series on the
History of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands portal

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to United Kingdom of the Netherlands at Wikimedia Commons

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