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Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue’s Message to USDA Staff Regarding FY2018 Budget
Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue’s Message to USDA Staff Regarding FY2018 Budget
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: USDA
Ag Minute: USDA History
Ag Minute: USDA History
Published: 2011/03/25
Channel: This Week in Louisiana Agriculture
What is The USDA?
What is The USDA?
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: AnushaFlamingo
Downsize the Department of Agriculture
Downsize the Department of Agriculture
Published: 2014/01/06
Channel: The Cato Institute
United States Dept of Agriculture, Victorville CA. First Amendment
United States Dept of Agriculture, Victorville CA. First Amendment
Published: 2018/06/16
Channel: California Guardian
A Step Saving Kitchen 1949 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Color
A Step Saving Kitchen 1949 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Color
Published: 2014/05/29
Channel: Jeff Quitney
USDA Helps Families Achieve the American Dream
USDA Helps Families Achieve the American Dream
Published: 2015/09/13
Channel: USDA
Hearing: FY 2019 Budget - United States Department of Agriculture (EventID=108156)
Hearing: FY 2019 Budget - United States Department of Agriculture (EventID=108156)
Published: 2018/04/18
Channel: HouseAppropsGOP
Welcoming Sonny Perdue as the 31st United States Secretary of Agriculture
Welcoming Sonny Perdue as the 31st United States Secretary of Agriculture
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: USDA
US. Department of Agriculture
US. Department of Agriculture
Published: 2009/05/03
Channel: Kels0Kels0
Hemp for Victory (1942) - United States Department of Agriculture
Hemp for Victory (1942) - United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2014/12/23
Channel: Realhemp LLC
US Department of Agriculture
US Department of Agriculture
Published: 2009/03/23
Channel: Paul Kafka
Department of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture
Published: 2018/01/06
Channel: Falling Bomb
Trees (1930s) - United States Department of Agriculture
Trees (1930s) - United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2016/07/20
Channel: Change Before Going Productions
2011 History of the Illinois River USDA United States Department of Agriculture
2011 History of the Illinois River USDA United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2018/03/22
Channel: Theocracy of the United States of America
What Does The US Department Of Agriculture Regulate?
What Does The US Department Of Agriculture Regulate?
Published: 2018/06/30
Channel: sparky Questions
USDA Census of Agriculture – Your Voice, Your Future, Your Opportunity
USDA Census of Agriculture – Your Voice, Your Future, Your Opportunity
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: USDA
Hawaii Departures: Aloha from the Department of Agriculture
Hawaii Departures: Aloha from the Department of Agriculture
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: USDAAPHIS
2017 Census of Agriculture PSA – Respond Now
2017 Census of Agriculture PSA – Respond Now
Published: 2018/01/04
Channel: USDA
Meat Inspection: "A Mark of Wholesome Meat" 1964 USDA US Department of Agriculture
Meat Inspection: "A Mark of Wholesome Meat" 1964 USDA US Department of Agriculture
Published: 2016/06/10
Channel: Jeff Quitney
Growing Loans by Partnering with the United States Department of Agriculture (1/11/2017)
Growing Loans by Partnering with the United States Department of Agriculture (1/11/2017)
Published: 2017/12/26
Channel: NCUAchannel
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ethics Mobile Application
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ethics Mobile Application
Published: 2018/04/20
Channel: actiac
Quality Milk 1930 USDA United States Department of Agriculture
Quality Milk 1930 USDA United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2015/08/25
Channel: Jeff Quitney
Hearing: FY19 Budget - Office of the Inspector General, United States Department of Agriculture
Hearing: FY19 Budget - Office of the Inspector General, United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2018/03/15
Channel: HouseAppropsGOP
USDA’s Strategic Goal #3
USDA’s Strategic Goal #3
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: USDA
12 20 12 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Re upload, thank you for your assistance2iphone
12 20 12 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Re upload, thank you for your assistance2iphone
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: Eeon 1
United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: Mia Chiques
Save the Soil - United States Department of Agriculture - Raymond Evans
Save the Soil - United States Department of Agriculture - Raymond Evans
Published: 2014/03/11
Channel: Change Before Going Productions
"Seay Vs. United States Department Of Agriculture" FOIA Lawsuit - U.S. District Court
"Seay Vs. United States Department Of Agriculture" FOIA Lawsuit - U.S. District Court
Published: 2018/02/07
Channel: Billy Go Boy
Mr Tom Vilsack Secretary of Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture
Mr Tom Vilsack Secretary of Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2014/10/10
Channel: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)
Duck Farming circa 1920s United States Department of Agriculture
Duck Farming circa 1920s United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2013/05/18
Channel: Jeff Quitney
03 Industry Partner Message - United States Department of Agriculture
03 Industry Partner Message - United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2018/07/04
Channel: Cocolink Philippines
USDA Works To Prevent Runoff In California
USDA Works To Prevent Runoff In California
Published: 2011/08/10
Channel: USDA
US Department of Agriculture and Blackboard: A success story
US Department of Agriculture and Blackboard: A success story
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: Blackboard Inc.
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USDA - United States Department of Agriculture welcomed our Marinera Norteña
Published: 2018/04/06
Channel: Two Worlds One Chalan - Marinera Nortenha del Peru
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12 20 12 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Re upload, thank you for your assistance2
Published: 2017/04/11
Channel: Eeon 1
150th Anniversary of the United States Department of Agriculture
150th Anniversary of the United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2012/05/22
Channel: CongressmanSablan
NASS PSA Dan Newhouse, Director, Washington State Department of Agriculture
NASS PSA Dan Newhouse, Director, Washington State Department of Agriculture
Published: 2012/12/13
Channel: USDA
CT cutting USDA United States Department of Agriculture 07-2015
CT cutting USDA United States Department of Agriculture 07-2015
Published: 2015/08/28
Channel: ESM EPT
Interview with John Loyd of the United States Department of Agriculture
Interview with John Loyd of the United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2013/02/08
Channel: Resolute Support
Your Department of Agriculture: Ag Business Development
Your Department of Agriculture: Ag Business Development
Published: 2017/12/11
Channel: Missouri Department of Agriculture
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Farmers Markets More Popular Than Ever
Published: 2014/08/18
Channel: USDA
Flash Mob at United States Department of Agriculture APHIS
Flash Mob at United States Department of Agriculture APHIS
Published: 2011/09/27
Channel: DiiMpZ
Warren Preston​, United States Department of Agriculture - US short and long term outlook
Warren Preston​, United States Department of Agriculture - US short and long term outlook
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: Outlook 2017
Quality Milk (1930) USDA United States Department of Agriculture
Quality Milk (1930) USDA United States Department of Agriculture
Published: 2018/01/01
Channel: Old Movies Reborn
The Department of Agriculture [OFFICIAL MOVIE]
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Published: 2012/11/30
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What Does The Department Of Agriculture?
What Does The Department Of Agriculture?
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OFC 18 - Ted McKinney, USDA
OFC 18 - Ted McKinney, USDA
Published: 2018/01/05
Channel: Oxford Farming Conference
USDA Secretary Sonny Perdue: Year One
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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United States Department of Agriculture
Seal of the United States Department of Agriculture.svg
Seal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
USDA logo.svg
Logo of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Flag of the United States Department of Agriculture.svg
Flag of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agency overview
Formed May 15, 1862; 156 years ago (1862-05-15)
Cabinet status: February 15, 1889
Preceding agency
  • Agricultural Division
Jurisdiction U.S. federal government
Headquarters Jamie L. Whitten Building
1301 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C.
38°53′17″N 77°1′48″W / 38.88806°N 77.03000°W / 38.88806; -77.03000Coordinates: 38°53′17″N 77°1′48″W / 38.88806°N 77.03000°W / 38.88806; -77.03000
Employees 105,778 (June 2007)
Annual budget US$151 billion (2017)[1]
Agency executives
Website USDA.gov

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally.

Approximately 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly known as the Food Stamp program), which is the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance.[2]

The current Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue.[3]

Overview[edit]

Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.[4] USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness,[5] where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness.

The USDA also is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets. It plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits. The Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 (b) and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, also known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation.

History[edit]

Harvey Washington Wiley, Chief Chemist of the Department of Agriculture's Division of Chemistry (third from the right) with his staff, not long after he joined the division in 1883

Origins[edit]

Early in its history, the economy of the United States was largely agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds, plants and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State. He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes."[citation needed] Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, and the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."[citation needed]

In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring.[citation needed]

Formation and subsequent history[edit]

The first Department of Agriculture Building on the National Mall around 1895
The Jamie L. Whitten Building in Washington D.C. is the USDA headquarters.

On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, and the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.[6] Lincoln called it the "people's department."

In 1868, the Department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, D.C. designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on Reservation No.2 on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the Department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants.[7]

In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, and farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. Finally, on February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level.[8]

In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 then funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, and other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state.[citation needed]

During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans. The Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther.[9] USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, and contributed to the education of the rural youth.[citation needed]

Organization, budget and tasks[edit]

The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows:[1]

Program Funding
(in billions)
Management and Finance

Secretary of Agriculture

Deputy Secretary of Agriculture
Departmental Administration 0.3
Office of the Chief Information Officer
Office of the Chief Economist
National Appeals Division
Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization
Office of Communications
Office of the Inspector General 0.1
Office of Tribal Relations
Office of the General Counsel
Office of the Chief Financial Officer
Office of Budget and Program Analysis
Office of Congressional Relations
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights
Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services

Under Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services

Farm Service Agency 6.2
Risk Management Agency 8.7
Foreign Agricultural Service 1.8
Rural Development

Under Secretary for Rural Development

Rural Business-Cooperative Service 1.3
Rural Utilities Service 7.3
Rural Housing Service 28.4
Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services

Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services

Food and Nutrition Service 112.2
Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion
Food Safety

Under Secretary for Food Safety

Food Safety and Inspection Service 1.0
Natural Resources and Environment

Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment

Natural Resources Conservation Service 4.2
United States Forest Service 4.8
Marketing and Regulatory Programs

Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 1.1
Agricultural Marketing Service 1.3
Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 0.04
Research, Education, and Economics

Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics

Agricultural Research Service 1.1
National Institute of Food and Agriculture 1.5
Economic Research Service 0.1
National Agricultural Statistics Service 0.2
National Agricultural Library
Under Secretary of Agriculture for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs[10]
Total 139.7
A nutrition researcher considers canned peas

Inactive[edit]

In 2015, Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack expressed the desire to resign to President Obama. The Washington Post reports that he said "There are days when I have literally nothing to do," he recalled thinking as he weighed his decision to quit."[12] President Obama did not accept his resignation but assigned him additional tasks of combating opioid addiction, a task usually not assigned to the Department of Agriculture.[12]

Discrimination[edit]

Allegations have been made that throughout the agency's history its personnel have discriminated against farmers of various backgrounds, denying them loans and access to other programs well into the 1990s.[13] The effect of this discrimination has been the reduction in the number of African-American farmers in the United States.[14] Many black farmers across the nation experienced discrimination in their dealings with in-state USDA agencies. Across the nation, black farmers alleged, and the USDA later agreed, they were denied access to loans and subsidies provided by the government.[15] On a national level, farm subsidies that were afforded to white farmers were not afforded to black farmers.[16] Since they were denied government loans, emergency or disaster assistance, and other aid, many black farmers lost their farms and homes.[17]

In 1999, the USDA settled a class action lawsuit, the Pigford Case, alleging discrimination against African-American farmers in the late twentieth century. The government's settlement of nearly $1 billion with more than 13,300 farmers was reportedly the largest civil rights claim to date.[18] The 2008 Farm Bill provided for additional farmers to have their claims heard, as 70,000 had filed late in the original program.[18] In 2010 the federal government made another $1.2 billion settlement in what is called Pigford II for outstanding claims.[19]

Pigford v. Glickman[edit]

Following long-standing concerns, black farmers joined a class action discrimination suit against the USDA filed in federal court in 1997.[19] An attorney called it "the most organized, largest civil rights case in the history of the country."[20] Also in 1997, black farmers from at least five states held protests in front of the USDA headquarters in Washington, D.C.[21] Protests in front of the USDA were a strategy employed in later years as the black farmers sought to keep national attention focused on the plight of the black farmers. Representatives of the National Black Farmers Association met with President Bill Clinton and other administration officials at the White House. And NBFA's president testified before the United States House Committee on Agriculture.[22]

In Pigford v. Glickman, U.S. Federal District Court Judge Paul L. Friedman approved the settlement and consent decree on April 14, 1999.[19] The settlement recognized discrimination against 22,363 black farmers but the NBFA would later call the agreement incomplete because more than 70,000 were excluded.[23] Nevertheless, the settlement was deemed to be the largest-ever civil rights class action settlement in American history. Lawyers estimated the value of the settlement to be more than $2 billion.[15] Some farmers would have their debts forgiven.[24] Judge Friedman appointed a monitor to oversee the settlement.[15] Farmers in Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Georgia were among those affected by the settlement.[25]

The NBFA's president was invited to testify before congress on this matter numerous times following the settlement including before the United States Senate Committee on Agriculture on September 12, 2000, when he testified that many farmers had not yet received payments and others were left out of the settlement. NBFA asked Congress to pass legislation that would ensure a full resolution of the discrimination cases.[citation needed] Environmental Working Group and NBFA issued a report in July 2004 accusing the USDA of withholding nearly three out of every four dollars in the multibillion-dollar settlement of discrimination cases.[26] The report says that the U.S. Department of Justice and the USDA pursued a path of "willful obstruction of justice" in blocking many of the cases. It was later revealed that one DoJ staff "general attorney" was unlicensed while she was handling black farmers' cases.[27] NBFA called for all those cases to be reheard.[citation needed] The Chicago Tribune reported in 2004 that the result of such longstanding USDA discrimination was that black farmers had been forced out of business at a rate three times faster than white farmers. In 1920, 1 in 7 U.S. farmers was African-American, and by 2004 the number is 1 in 100. USDA spokesman Ed Loyd, when acknowledging that the USDA loan process was unfair to minority farmers, had claimed it was hard to determine the effect on such farmers.[28]

In 2006 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report highly critical of the USDA in its handling of the black farmers cases.[29] NBFA continued to lobby Congress to provide relief. NBFA's Boyd secured congressional support for legislation that would provide $100 million in funds to settle late-filer cases. In 2006 a bill was introduced into the House of Representatives and later the Senate by Senator George Felix Allen.[30] In 2007 Boyd testified before the United States House Committee on the Judiciary about this legislation.[citation needed] As the organization was making headway by gathering Congressional supporters in 2007 it was revealed that some USDA Farm Services Agency employees were engaged in activities aimed at blocking Congressional legislation that would aid the black farmers.[31] President Barack Obama, then a U.S. Senator, lent his support to the black farmers' issues in 2007.[32] A bill cosponsored by Obama passed the Senate in 2007.[33]

In early June 2008 hundreds of black farmers, denied a chance to have their cases heard in the Pigford settlement, filed a new lawsuit against USDA.[34] The Senate and House versions of the black farmers bill, reopening black farmers discrimination cases, became law in June 2008.[17] Some news reports said that the new law could affect up to 74,000 black farmers.[35] In October 2008, the GAO issued a report criticizing the USDA's handling of discrimination complaints.[36] The GAO recommended an oversight review board to examine civil rights complaints.[37]

After numerous public rallies and an intensive NBFA member lobbying effort, Congress approved and Obama signed into law in December 2010 legislation that set aside $1.15 billion to resolve the outstanding black farmers cases.[38] NBFA's John W. Boyd, Jr., attended the bill-signing ceremony at the White House.[citation needed] As of 2013, 90,000 African-American, Hispanic, female and Native American farmers had filed claims. It was reported that some had been found fraudulent, or transparently bogus. In Maple Hill, North Carolina by 2013, the number of successful claimants was four times the number of farms with 1 out of 9 African-Americans being paid, while "claimants were not required [by the USDA] to present documentary evidence that they had been unfairly treated or had even tried to farm." Lack of documentation is an issue complicated by the USDA practice of discarding denied applications after three years.[39]

Related legislation[edit]

Hemp for Victory, a short documentary produced by the Department during World War II
A guide to improving farmhouse kitchens, put out by the Department's Institute of Home Economics, Agricultural Research Service, in 1952
A guide to making clothes, put out by the Institute of Home Economics in 1959
The Secretary of Agriculture's office is located in the Jamie L. Whitten Building.
USDA Visitor's Center in the Jamie L. Whitten Building.
The Beagle Brigade are part of the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. This piece of luggage at Dulles Airport may contain contraband.

Important legislation setting policy of the USDA includes the:

(This act includes the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990)

Criticism[edit]

In 2016, Food & Water Watch claimed that "when independent, government scientists produce research that threatens corporate agribusinesses, the USDA—according to at least 10 government scientists—censors the results, waters down the findings and punishes the researchers".[40]

According to Food & Water Watch, the Environmental Working Group, AlterNet and others, the USDA has strong ties to the food industry.[40][41][42][43][44][45]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b "FY 2015 Budget Summary and Annual Performance Plan" (PDF). U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2015-07-14. 
  2. ^ "History of FNS" (PDF). usda.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-12. Retrieved July 1, 2016. 
  3. ^ Michael Lewis (November 2017). "Inside Trump's Cruel Campaign Against the U.S.D.A.'s Scientists". VanityFair.com. Retrieved November 5, 2017. 
  4. ^ "FNS Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)". 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  5. ^ "United States Interagency Council on Homelessness". USICH. Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. 
  6. ^ 12 Stat. 387, now codified at 7 U.S.C. § 2201.
  7. ^ Evening Star - June 18, 1868 - page 4 - column 4
  8. ^ 25 Stat 659 (February 9, 1889)
  9. ^ Ziegelman, Jane; Coe, Andrew (2016). A Square Meal: A Culinary History of the Great Depression. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-221641-0. 
  10. ^ "Secretary Perdue Announces Creation of Undersecretary for Trade". Retrieved June 16, 2018. 
  11. ^ a b "Records of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering [BPISAE]: Administrative History". Archives.gov. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  12. ^ a b Jaffe, Greg; Eilperin, Juliet (September 26, 2016). "Tom Vilsack's lonely fight for a 'forgotten' rural America". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 18, 2016. 
  13. ^ "USDA - Problems Continue to Hinder the Timely Processing of Discrimination Complaints" (PDF). General Accounting Office. January 1999. 
  14. ^ Brooks, Roy L. Atonement and Forgiveness: A New Model for Black Reparations. University of California Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-520-24813-9. 
  15. ^ a b c "Judge Approves Settlement for Black Farmers". New York Times. ASSOCIATED PRESS. April 15, 1999. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  16. ^ "ABC World News Tonight (2003)". Abcnews.go.com. 2003-11-21. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  17. ^ a b Ben Evans (2008-06-28). "Reopening black farmers' suits could cost billions". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  18. ^ a b Pickert, Kate (July 23, 2010). "When Shirley Sherrod Was First Wronged by the USDA". Time. 
  19. ^ a b c Tadlock Cowan and Jody Feder (14 June 2011). "The Pigford Cases: USDA Settlement of Discrimination Suits by Black Farmers" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  20. ^ "PBS The News Hour (1999)". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  21. ^ Charlene Gilbert, Quinn Eli (2002). Homecoming: The Story of African-American Farmers. Beacon Press. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  22. ^ Treatment of minority and limited resource producers by the U.S. Department of Agriculture: ... U.S. G.P.O. Jan 1, 1997. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  23. ^ M. Susan Orr Klopfer, Fred Klopfer, Barry Klopfer (2005). Where Rebels Roost... Mississippi Civil Rights Revisited. Lulu Press. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  24. ^ "Black Farmers Lawsuit". NPR. March 2, 1999. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  25. ^ "Southern farmers among those affected by court case". Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. 
  26. ^ "Obstruction of Justice". Environmental Working Group. July 2004. Archived from the original on 2006-10-22. 
  27. ^ Daniel Pulliam (February 11, 2005). "Unlicensed Hire". GOVEXEC.com. Archived from the original on 2005-04-16. 
  28. ^ Martin, Andrew (2004-08-08). "USDA discrimination accused of withering black farmers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  29. ^ "Black Farmers Follow Up on USDA Grievances". National Public Radio. 25 Apr 2006. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  30. ^ "Allen Unveils Bill to Help Black Farmers". The Washington Post. Associated Press. September 29, 2006. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  31. ^ "Obama: USDA Should Not Undermine Legislation to Help Black Farmers". August 8, 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-11-11. 
  32. ^ "The Hill newspaper (2007)". Thehill.com. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  33. ^ Ben Evans (December 17, 2007). "Senate Votes to Reopen Black Farmers' Lawsuits". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  34. ^ Ben Evans (June 4, 2008). "Black farmers file new suit against USDA". FOXNews.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  35. ^ "Help Ahead for Black Farmers". NPR. December 31, 2007. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  36. ^ Etter, Lauren (2008-10-23). "USDA Faulted Over Minority Farmers". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  37. ^ Fears, Darryl (2008-10-23). "USDA Action On Bias Complaints Is Criticized". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  38. ^ CNN Wire Staff (2010-12-09). "Obama signs measure funding black farmers settlement". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-31. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  39. ^ Sharon LaFraniere (April 25, 2013). "U.S. Opens Spigot After Farmers Claim Discrimination". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2013. ...claimants were not required to present documentary evidence that they had been unfairly treated or had even tried to farm. 
  40. ^ a b "USDA Censoring Anti-Monsanto Science?". Food & Water Watch. 2016-03-09. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  41. ^ Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Haberman, Maggie (2017). "Sonny Perdue Is Trump's Choice for Agriculture Secretary". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  42. ^ "Sonny Perdue's Revolving Door Policy Already in Action". EWG. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  43. ^ Paul, Katherine (2017-01-29). "6 Reasons Trump's Agriculture Secretary Pick Is Bad for America". AlterNet. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  44. ^ "Critics say USDA too close to food industry it regulates". Capital Press. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  45. ^ "Experts Say Lobbying Skewed the U.S. Dietary Guidelines". Time. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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