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How to Use a Wide Angle Lens
How to Use a Wide Angle Lens
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: Thomas Heaton
Wide Angle Lenses as Fast As Possible
Wide Angle Lenses as Fast As Possible
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5 Reasons Why You Need an Ultra-Wide Angle Lens
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Throw Away Your Wide Angle Lens
Throw Away Your Wide Angle Lens
Published: 2018/04/15
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How wide is TOO WIDE??
How wide is TOO WIDE??
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MASTER your WIDE ANGLE lens photography
MASTER your WIDE ANGLE lens photography
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A Wide Angle Lens That Does Macro! Laowa 15mm Review
A Wide Angle Lens That Does Macro! Laowa 15mm Review
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Affordable wide angle lens [Samyang 14mm review]
Affordable wide angle lens [Samyang 14mm review]
Published: 2015/07/05
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Three Tips for Using a Wide Angle Lens: Exploring Photography with Mark Wallace
Three Tips for Using a Wide Angle Lens: Exploring Photography with Mark Wallace
Published: 2015/06/09
Channel: Adorama
10 Best Wide Angle Lenses 2017
10 Best Wide Angle Lenses 2017
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Ezvid Wiki
10 Best Wide Angle Lenses 2018
10 Best Wide Angle Lenses 2018
Published: 2018/04/27
Channel: Ezvid Wiki
Canon 10-18mm STM Ultra Wide Lens Review & Video Test
Canon 10-18mm STM Ultra Wide Lens Review & Video Test
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: Chris Winter
Neewer Week Day 2: Neewer Wide-Angle Converter with Macro
Neewer Week Day 2: Neewer Wide-Angle Converter with Macro
Published: 2015/01/13
Channel: The Wright of Photo
5 reasons why you should use a wide angle lens!
5 reasons why you should use a wide angle lens!
Published: 2017/10/31
Channel: Hk Visuals
How to shoot Wide Angle Lenses: 7 Things You NEED To KNOW!
How to shoot Wide Angle Lenses: 7 Things You NEED To KNOW!
Published: 2018/06/29
Channel: Pierre T. Lambert
Canon 11-24mm f/4L USM Hands-on Review
Canon 11-24mm f/4L USM Hands-on Review
Published: 2015/04/13
Channel: DigitalRev TV
Review: Aukey Optic Pro Wide-Angle camera lens
Review: Aukey Optic Pro Wide-Angle camera lens
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: iDB
How to Shoot Wide Angle Portraits
How to Shoot Wide Angle Portraits
Published: 2018/01/29
Channel: Titolikescats
The Best Wide-Angle Lens for Landscape Photography?
The Best Wide-Angle Lens for Landscape Photography?
Published: 2018/04/04
Channel: Micael Widell
5 Reasons To Buy A Wide Angle Lens
5 Reasons To Buy A Wide Angle Lens
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: Eric Rossi
Best Wide Angle Lens For YouTube
Best Wide Angle Lens For YouTube
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: Think Media
What is a Wide Angle Lens?
What is a Wide Angle Lens?
Published: 2014/06/04
Channel: kendpc
Sony Ultra Wide Angle Lens — Rokinon 12mm f/2.0 Sony E Mount Review
Sony Ultra Wide Angle Lens — Rokinon 12mm f/2.0 Sony E Mount Review
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: Think Media
Standard Lens Vs. Wide Angle Lens
Standard Lens Vs. Wide Angle Lens
Published: 2012/06/02
Channel: McJuggerNuggets
How to shoot Fujifilm XF16mm wide angle lens for portraits Ft. Sierra
How to shoot Fujifilm XF16mm wide angle lens for portraits Ft. Sierra
Published: 2018/01/01
Channel: Xing Liu
Using your Super Wide Angle Lens: You Keep Shooting with Bryan Peterson
Using your Super Wide Angle Lens: You Keep Shooting with Bryan Peterson
Published: 2017/11/24
Channel: Adorama
Samyang 14mm f2.8 Review- Best Budget Wide Angle Lens?
Samyang 14mm f2.8 Review- Best Budget Wide Angle Lens?
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: Updato
Lens technique: Wide-angle portraiture with the Sigma 24-35mm F2 DG HSM Art
Lens technique: Wide-angle portraiture with the Sigma 24-35mm F2 DG HSM Art
Published: 2016/02/12
Channel: DPReview
Travel Photography Tips: Why use ULTRA WIDE angle lens
Travel Photography Tips: Why use ULTRA WIDE angle lens
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: David Cuhls
Canon Best Low Light Wide Angle Lens
Canon Best Low Light Wide Angle Lens
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: atdavidlee
Travel Photography with an Ultra Wide Angle Lens
Travel Photography with an Ultra Wide Angle Lens
Published: 2015/09/23
Channel: Matt Granger
Budget Wide Angle Lens for Canon Full Frame — Rokinon 14mm f/2.8 AF Test
Budget Wide Angle Lens for Canon Full Frame — Rokinon 14mm f/2.8 AF Test
Published: 2018/04/12
Channel: Think Media
8x Ultra wide-angle zoom lens comparison battle! APS-C lenses from Canon, Sigma, Tamron & Tokina
8x Ultra wide-angle zoom lens comparison battle! APS-C lenses from Canon, Sigma, Tamron & Tokina
Published: 2015/04/29
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Wide Angle Environmental Portraiture tips
Wide Angle Environmental Portraiture tips
Published: 2015/05/27
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DO'S AND DON'TS OF WIDE ANGLE LENS IN 10 MINUTES
Published: 2017/07/10
Channel: Motherpixels Photography
Taking Real Estate Photos With Ultra Wide Angle Lens And Photoshop HDR
Taking Real Estate Photos With Ultra Wide Angle Lens And Photoshop HDR
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Alex Haj
Using Wide Angle Lenses for Fuji X
Using Wide Angle Lenses for Fuji X
Published: 2018/04/26
Channel: Roy Cruz
Best Wide Angle Lens For Sony a6300/a6500
Best Wide Angle Lens For Sony a6300/a6500
Published: 2018/03/22
Channel: Dennis Films
📷 -BEST ULTRA-WIDE ANGLE LENS FOR SONY! (Gear Review)
📷 -BEST ULTRA-WIDE ANGLE LENS FOR SONY! (Gear Review)
Published: 2018/05/18
Channel: VforVallee
Wide Angle Lens for iPhone
Wide Angle Lens for iPhone
Published: 2015/09/28
Channel: Copper vs Glass
Wide Angle Lenses: Explained
Wide Angle Lenses: Explained
Published: 2017/04/05
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Best Wide Angle Lens Adapter | 0.7x is Great for Vlogging on Panasonic G85 GH5
Best Wide Angle Lens Adapter | 0.7x is Great for Vlogging on Panasonic G85 GH5
Published: 2017/08/04
Channel: Vtudio
0.45x Wide angle lens review
0.45x Wide angle lens review
Published: 2012/03/21
Channel: hiphopsuperman
LG V30 x Wide Angle Lens
LG V30 x Wide Angle Lens
Published: 2017/09/25
Channel: LGUSAMobile
Sigma 16mm 1.4 DC DN Lens...Best Wide Angle Lens for the Sony a6500!
Sigma 16mm 1.4 DC DN Lens...Best Wide Angle Lens for the Sony a6500!
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: Sidney Diongzon
Vivitar Wide Angle Lens .43x 52mm- Review Pics
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Published: 2014/08/22
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Using closeup and wide angle lenses on Panasonic Bridge cameras
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Published: 2013/04/11
Channel: Graham Houghton
Moment Wide Angle V2 Lens for iPhone - Review
Moment Wide Angle V2 Lens for iPhone - Review
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Best Wide Angle Lens
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Published: 2016/07/06
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SONY A6500 - BEST WIDE ANGLE LENS?
SONY A6500 - BEST WIDE ANGLE LENS?
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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One of Canon's most-popular wide-angle lenses – 17-40 mm f/4 L retrofocus zoom lens.
How focal length affects photograph composition. Three images depict the same two objects, kept in the same positions. By changing focal length and adjusting the camera's distance from the pink bottle, it remains the same size in the image, while the blue bottle's size appears to dramatically change. Also note that at small focal lengths, more of the scene is included.

In photography and cinematography, a wide-angle lens refers to a lens whose focal length is substantially smaller than the focal length of a normal lens for a given film plane. This type of lens allows more of the scene to be included in the photograph, which is useful in architectural, interior and landscape photography where the photographer may not be able to move farther from the scene to photograph it.

Another use is where the photographer wishes to emphasise the difference in size or distance between objects in the foreground and the background; nearby objects appear very large and objects at a moderate distance appear small and far away.

This exaggeration of relative size can be used to make foreground objects more prominent and striking, while capturing expansive backgrounds.[1]

A wide angle lens is also one that projects a substantially larger image circle than would be typical for a standard design lens of the same focal length. This large image circle enables either large tilt & shift movements with a view camera, or a wide field of view.

By convention, in still photography, the normal lens for a particular format has a focal length approximately equal to the length of the diagonal of the image frame or digital photosensor. In cinematography, a lens of roughly twice the diagonal is considered "normal".[2]

Angle of view[edit]

A lens is considered wide-angle when it covers the angle of view between 64° and 84° which in return translates to 35–24mm lens in 35mm film format.[citation needed]

Characteristics[edit]

Longer lenses magnify the subject more, apparently compressing distance and (when focused on the foreground) blurring the background because of their shallower depth of field. Wider lenses tend to magnify distance between objects while allowing greater depth of field.

Another result of using a wide-angle lens is a greater apparent perspective distortion when the camera is not aligned perpendicularly to the subject: parallel lines converge at the same rate as with a normal lens, but converge more due to the wider total field. For example, buildings appear to be falling backwards much more severely when the camera is pointed upward from ground level than they would if photographed with a normal lens at the same distance from the subject, because more of the subject building is visible in the wide-angle shot.

Because different lenses generally require a different camera–subject distance to preserve the size of a subject, changing the angle of view can indirectly distort perspective, changing the apparent relative size of the subject and foreground.

Wide-angle lenses for 35 mm format[edit]

For a full-frame 35 mm camera with a 36 mm by 24 mm format, the diagonal measures 43.3 mm and by custom, the normal lens adopted by most manufacturers is 50 mm. Also by custom, a lens of focal length 35 mm or less is considered wide-angle.

Ultra wide angle lenses have a focal length shorter than the short side of the film or sensor[citation needed]. In 35 mm, an ultra wide-angle lens has a focal length shorter than 24 mm.

Common wide-angle for a full-frame 35 mm camera are 35, 28, 24, 21, 20, 18 and 14 mm, the latter four being ultra-wide. Many of the lenses in this range will produce a more or less rectilinear image at the film plane, though some degree of barrel distortion is not uncommon here.

Ultra wide-angle lenses that do not produce a rectilinear image (i.e., exhibit barrel distortion) are called fisheye lenses. Common focal lengths for these in a 35 mm camera are 6 to 8 mm (which produce a circular image). Lenses with focal lengths of 8 to 16 mm may be either rectilinear or fisheye designs.

Wide-angle lenses come in both fixed-focal-length and zoom varieties. For 35 mm cameras, lenses producing rectilinear images can be found at focal lengths as short as 8 mm, including zoom lenses with ranges of 2:1 that begin at 12 mm.

Digital camera considerations[edit]

Field of view in APS-sized digital cameras is the same as that of a longer lens, increased by crop factor, on a full-frame 35 mm format camera.

As of 2015, many interchangeable-lens digital cameras have image sensors that are smaller than the film format of full-frame 35 mm cameras.[a] For the most part, the dimensions of these image sensors are similar to the APS-C image frame size, i.e., approximately 24 mm x 16 mm. Therefore, the angle of view for any given focal-length lens will be narrower than it would be in a full-frame camera because the smaller sensor "sees" less of the image projected by the lens. The camera manufacturers provide a crop factor (sometimes called a field-of-view factor or a focal-length multiplier) to show how much smaller the sensor is than a full 35 mm film frame. For example, one common factor is 1.5 (Nikon DX format and some others), although many cameras have crop factors of 1.6 (most Canon DSLRs), 1.7 (the early Sigma DSLRs) and 2 (the Four Thirds and Micro Four Thirds cameras). The 1.5 indicates that the angle of view of a lens on the camera is the same as that of a 1.5 times longer focal length on a 35 mm full-frame camera, which explains why the crop factor is also known as a focal-length multiplier. As example, a 28 mm lens on the DSLR (given a crop factor of 1.5) would produce the angle of view of a 42 mm lens on a full-frame camera. So, to determine the focal length of a lens for a digital camera that will give the equivalent angle of view as one on a full-frame camera, the full-frame lens focal length must be divided by the crop factor. For example, to get the equivalent angle of view of a 30 mm lens on a full-frame 35 mm camera, from a digital camera with a 1.5 crop factor, one would use a 20 mm lens.

Lens manufacturers have responded by making wide-angle lenses of much shorter focal lengths for these cameras. In doing this, they limit the diameter of the image projected to slightly more than the diagonal measurement of the photosensor. This gives the designers more flexibility in providing the optical corrections necessary to economically produce high-quality images at these short focal lengths, especially when the lenses are zoom lenses. Examples are 10 mm minimum focal length zoom lenses from several manufacturers. At 10 mm, these lenses provide the angle of view of a 15 mm lens on a full-frame camera when the crop factor is 1.5.

Construction[edit]

Cross-section of a typical short-focus wide-angle lens.
Cross-section of a typical retrofocus wide-angle lens.

There are two varieties of wide-angle lens: short-focus lenses and retrofocus lenses. Short-focus lenses are generally made up of multiple glass elements whose shapes are more or less symmetrical in front of and behind the diaphragm. As the focal length decreases, the distance of the rear element of the lens from the film plane or digital sensor also decreases.

This makes short-focus wide-angle lenses undesirable for single-lens reflex cameras unless they are used with the reflex mirrors locked up. On large format view cameras and rangefinder cameras, short-focus lenses are widely used because they give less distortion than the retrofocus design and there is no need for a long back focal distance.

Effective focal length is measured from the sensor to where the light cone going to the sensor is the same size as the lens front opening.

The retrofocus lens solves this proximity problem through an asymmetrical design that allows the rear element to be farther away from the film plane than its effective focal length would suggest. (See Angénieux retrofocus.)

For example, it is not uncommon for the rear element of a retrofocus lens of 18 mm to be more than 25 mm from the film plane. This makes it possible to design wide-angle lenses for single-lens reflex cameras.

The axial adjustment range for focusing Ultra wide angle lenses and some Wide-angle lenses in large format cameras is usually very small. Some manufacturers (e.g. Linhof) have offered special focusing lens mounts, so-called 'wide-angle focusing devices' for their cameras that allow the lens to be focused precisely without moving the entire front standard.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Using wide angle lenses". Cambridge in Colour. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  2. ^ Anton Wilson, Anton Wilson's Cinema Workshop, American Cinematographer, 2004 (Page 100) ISBN 0-935578-26-9

Notes[edit]

External links[edit]

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